Posted January 31st, 2012 at 03:27pm
The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution forbids unreasonable search and seizure without a warrant, but some administrations have claimed exceptions to this rule to investigate alleged conspiracies against the government. During the Cold War, the Federal Bureau of Investigation established COINTELPRO to infiltrate and disrupt left-wing organizations, including those that supported the rights of black Americans. Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery
Main article: Labor rights
However, many states hold to the principle of at-will employment, which says an employee can be fired for any or no reason, without warning and without recourse, unless violation of State or Federal civil rights laws can be proven. Sony VAIO VGN-NW20ZF Battery
See also: Health care in the United States
This section may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page. (May 2009) Akku Sony VGP-BPS21B
as have several studies and debunking studies which claim to show a deterrent effect. According to Amnesty International, "the death penalty is the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights." Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Akku
the Supreme Court of California classified capital punishment as cruel and unusual and outlawed the use of capital punishment in California, until it was reinstated in 1976 after the federal supreme court rulings Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976), Jurek v. Texas, 428 U.S. 262 (1976), and Proffitt v. Florida, 428 U.S. 242 (1976). As of January 25, 2008, the death penalty has been abolished in the District of Columbia and fourteen states, mainly in the Northeast and Midwest. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z Akku
Human Rights Watch raised concerns with prisoner rape and medical care for inmates. In a survey of 1,788 male inmates in Midwestern prisons by Prison Journal, about 21% claimed they had been coerced or pressured into sexual activity during their incarceration and 7% claimed that they had been raped in their current facility. Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery
See also: War on Terrorism and Criticism of the War on Terrorism
This section may be too long and overly detailed.
This section may stray from the topic of the article. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page. (September 2010) Sony VAIO VGN-FW411ZRU Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-AW31ZJ/B Battery The officer who oversaw intelligence gathering at Guantanamo was brought in to overhaul interrogation practices in Iraq, and teams of interrogators from Guantanamo were sent to Abu Ghraib. The commanding general in Iraq issued orders to "manipulate an internee's emotions and weaknesses." Sony VAIO VGN-AW21XY/Q Battery
This section may be too long and overly detailed.
The June 21, 2004 issue of Newsweek stated that the Bybee memo, a 2002 legal memorandum drafted by former OLC lawyer John Yoo that described what sort of interrogation tactics against suspected terrorists or terrorist affiliates the Bush administration would consider legal, was "prompted by CIA questions about what to do with a top Qaeda captive, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery
Abu Zubaydah, who had turned uncooperative ... and was drafted after White House meetings convened by George W. Bush's chief counsel, Alberto Gonzales, along with Defense Department general counsel William Haynes and David Addington, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery
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In addition the CIA’s waterboarding clearly fulfills the three additional definition criteria stated in the Convention for a deed to be labeled torture, since it is 1) done intentionally, 2) for a specific purpose and 3) by a representative of a state - in this case the US. HP Pavilion DV5-1019TX Battery
HP Pavilion DV6-1211AX Battery The rough tactics range from waterboarding (simulated drowning) to keeping suspects naked and denying them solid food. HP Pavilion DV5-1020TX Battery
HP Pavilion G60-420SA Battery using a plastic neck collar to slam detainees into walls, keeping the detainee's cell cold for long periods, beating and kicking the detainee, insects placed in a confinement box (the suspect had a fear of insects), sleep-deprivation, prolonged shackling, and threats to a detainee's family. One of the memos also authorized a method for combining multiple techniques. HP Pavilion DV5 Battery
HP Pavilion G60-415SA Battery  This may have gone beyond even what was allowed by the CIA's own directives, which limit waterboarding to 12 times a day. The Fox News website carried reports from an un-named US official who claimed that these were the number of pourings, not the number of sessions. HP Pavilion DV6 Battery
Physicians for Human Rights has accused the Bush administration of conducting illegal human experiments and unethical medical research during interrogations of suspected terrorists. The group has suggested this activity was a violation of the standards set by the Nuremberg Trials. HP Pavilion DV6T Battery
HP Pavilion G60-410SA Battery The ICRC, in response to the US-led military campaign in Afghanistan, published a paper on the subject. HRW cites two sergeants and a captain accusing U.S. troops of torturing prisoners in Iraq and Afghanistan. HP Pavilion DV6-2020AX Battery
HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO Battery On 30 September 2011, the CIA carried out the extrajudicial killing of U.S. citizen and radical cleric Anwar al-Awlaki with a drone attack while the Al-Qaeda member was in Yemen. HP Pavilion DV7-1137 Battery
According to Canadian historian Michael Ignatieff, during and after the Cold War, the United States placed greater emphasis than other nations on human rights as part of its foreign policy, awarded foreign aid to facilitate human rights progress, and annually assessed the human rights records of other national governments. HP Pavilion DV7-1150 Battery
Nathaniel Jensen of the embassy in Vietnam was runner-up. He successfully advanced the human rights agenda on several fronts, including organizing the resumption of a bilateral Human Rights Dialogue, pushing for the release of Vietnam’s prisoners of concern, and dedicating himself to improving religion freedom in northern Vietnam. Sony VGP-BPS8B Battery
there is some issue as to whether the non-self-execution declaration is even legal under domestic law. At any rate, the United States is but a signatory in name only.
Nations that have accepted the Rome Statute can defer to the jurisdiction of the ICC or must surrender their jurisdiction when ordered.
The U.S. has not ratified the following international human rights treaties:
Optional Protocol to CEDAW
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According to Freedom in the World, an annual report by US based think-tank Freedom House, which rates political rights and civil liberties, in 2007, the United States was ranked "Free" (the highest possible rating), together with 92 other countries. COMPAQ PRESARIO CQ60 Battery
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In the aftermath of the devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina, criticism by some groups commenting on human rights issues was made regarding the recovery and reconstruction issues The American Civil Liberties Union and the National Prison Project documented mistreatment of the prison population during the flooding, COMPAQ PRESARIO CQ40-315TX Battery while United Nations Special Rapporteur Doudou Di ne delivered a 2008 report on such issues. The United States was elected in 2009 to sit on the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), which the U.S. State Department had previously asserted had lost its credibility by its prior stances HP Pavilion DV6-1211AX Battery
Posted January 31st, 2012 at 03:26pm
There is criticism of human-rights organisations who use their status but allegedly move away from their stated goals. For example, Gerald M. Steinberg, an Israel-based academic, maintains that NGOs take advantage of a "halo effect" and are "given the status of impartial moral watchdogs" by governments and the media. Sony Vaio VGN-NW11Z/S Battery
[T]he growing power of transnational corporations and their extension of power through privatization, deregulation and the rolling back of the State also mean that it is now time to develop binding legal norms that hold corporations to human rights standards and circumscribe potential abuses of their position of power. Sony Vaio VGN-NW26M Battery
Human rights violations
See also: War, Genocides in history, and Human rights defender
Article 39 of the United Nations Charter designates the UN Security Council (or an appointed authority) as the only tribunal that may determine UN human rights violations. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery
Human rights abuses are monitored by United Nations committees, national institutions and governments and by many independent non-governmental organizations, such as Amnesty International, International Federation of Human Rights, Human Rights Watch, World Organisation Against Torture, Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Battery
Wars of aggression, war crimes and crimes against humanity, including genocide, are breaches of International humanitarian law and represent the most serious of human rights violations. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery
In efforts to eliminate violations of human rights, building awareness and protesting inhumane treatment has often led to calls for action and sometimes improved conditions. The UN Security Council has interceded with peace keeping forces, and other states and treaties (NATO) have intervened in situations to protect human rights. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery
Right to life
Article 6.1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Torture is prohibited under international law and the domestic laws of most countries in the 21st century. It is considered to be a violation of human rights, and is declared to be unacceptable by Article 5 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZU Battery
Signatories of the Third Geneva Convention and Fourth Geneva Convention officially agree not to torture prisoners in armed conflicts. Torture is also prohibited by the United Nations Convention Against Torture, which has been ratified by 147 states. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J Battery
Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
The principles were presented at a United Nations event in New York on November 7, 2007, co-sponsored by Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/P Battery
Some experts argue that trade is inherent to human nature and that when governments inhibit international trade they directly inhibit the right to work and the other indirect benefits, like the right to education, that increased work and investment help accrue. Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/W Battery
Sony Vaio VGP-BPS22A Battery There are calls from many NGOs and politicians to enshrine access to water as a binding human right, and not as a commodity. According to the United Nations, nearly 900 million people lack access to clean water and more than 2.6 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/L Battery
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Human rights and the environment
Relativists argue that human rights must avoid pushing the values of a single culture at the expense of others. "The White Man's Burden" is seen as an example of the West using the spread of Western culture as a justification for colonization.
Universalists argue that some practices violate the norms of all human cultures. They point out that although Female Genital Cutting is prevalent in Africa, no religion supports the practice, and the tradition is in violation of women's rights. Sony VGN-CR31Z Battery
More specifically, proponents of cultural relativism argue for acceptance of different cultures, which may have practices conflicting with human rights. Relativists caution that universalism could be used as a form of cultural, economic or political imperialism. Sony VGN-CR41SR Battery
The former Prime Ministers of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, and of Malaysia, Mahathir bin Mohamad both claimed in the 1990s that Asian values were significantly different from western values and included a sense of loyalty and foregoing personal freedoms for the sake of social stability and prosperity, and therefore authoritarian government is more appropriate in Asia than democracy. Lee Kuan Yew argued that: Sony VGN-CR42S Battery
What Asians value may not necessarily be what Americans or Europeans value. Westerners value the freedoms and liberties of the individual. As an Asian of Chinese cultural background, my values are for a government which is honest, effective, and efficient. Sony VGN-CR42Z Battery
Lee Kuan Yew, 'Democracy, Human Rights and the Realities', Tokyo, Nov 10, 1992
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According to Human Rights: The Essential Reference, "the American Declaration of Independence was the first civic document that met a modern definition of human rights." The Constitution recognizes a number of inalienable human rights, Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-FW54M Battery The Ninth Amendment and Fourteenth Amendment recognize that not all human rights have yet been enumerated. The Civil Rights Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act are examples of human rights that were enumerated by Congress well after the Constitution's writing. Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery
Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the first comprehensive legislation prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race and national origin in the workplace in a major industrialized country. Among the guests behind him is Martin Luther King, Jr. Sony VAIO VGN-FW51 Battery
] while most of the world contains no such recourse for job discrimination. The CRA is perhaps the most prominent civil rights legislation enacted in modern times, has served as a model for subsequent anti-discrimination laws and has greatly expanded civil rights protections in a wide variety of settings. Sony VGN-CS21S/R Battery
Sony VGN-CS31Z/Q Battery The United States' 1991 provision of recourse for victims of such discrimination for punitive damages and full back pay has virtually no parallel in the legal systems of any other nation. Sony VGN-CS21S/T Battery
Sony VGN-CS31S/W Battery the United States also began a program of affirmative action which not only obliges employers not to discriminate, but also requires them to provide preferences for groups protected under the Civil Rights Act to increase their numbers where they are judged to be underrepresented. Sony VGN-CS21S/W Battery
Abolitionist Anthony Benezet and others formed the first human rights nongovernmental organization in the U.S. This image was used as a symbol for their cause.
U.S. women suffragists demonstrating for the right to vote, February 1913
the United States possesses anti-discrimination government enforcement bodies, such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, while only the United Kingdom and Ireland possess faintly analogous bureaucracies. Beginning in 1965, the United States also began a program of affirmative action which not only obliges employers not to discriminate, SONY VGN-FW41J/H BATTERY
Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/T Battery but also requires them to provide preferences for groups protected under the CRA to increase their numbers where they are judged to be underrepresented. Such affirmative action programs are also applied in college admissions. SONY VGN-FW41M/H BATTERY
Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF/S Battery The ADA amends the CRA and permits plaintiffs to recover punitive damages. The ADA has been instrumental in the evolution of disability discrimination law in many countries, and has had such an enormous impact on foreign law development that its international impact may be even larger than its domestic impact.
Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/S Battery Although ADA Title I was found to be unconstitutional, the Supreme Court has extended the protection to people with Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Same-sex marriage rally in Iowa
At an anti-Proposition 8 rally in New York City a protester compares the discrimination blacks experienced with the state of gay rights. Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF/w Battery
Wisconsin was the first state to pass a law explicitly prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. In 1996, Hawaii ruled same-sex marriage is a Hawaiian constitutional right. Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont, and New Hampshire are the only states that allow same-sex marriage. Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF/S Battery
The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of criminalizing oral and anal sex in the Bowers v. Hardwick 478 U.S. 186 (1986) decision; however, it overturned the decision in the Lawrence v. Texas 539 U.S. 558 (2003) case and established the protection to sexual privacy. Sony VAIO VGN-NS10E/S Battery
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Freedom of religion
The Four Freedoms are derived from the 1941 State of the Union Address by United States President Franklin Roosevelt delivered to the 77th United States Congress on January 6, 1941. The theme was incorporated into the Atlantic Charter, and it became part of the charter of the United Nations and appears in the preamble of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. Sony VAIO VGN-NS11S/S Battery
Some laws remain controversial due to concerns that they infringe on freedom of expression. These include the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act. Sony VAIO VGN-NS21S/S Battery
the Presidential administration may deny or revoke passports for foreign policy or national security reasons at any time. Perhaps the most notable example of enforcement of this ability was the 1948 denial of a passport to U.S. Representative Leo Isacson, who sought to go to Paris to attend a conference as an observer for the American Council for a Democratic Greece, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery
"The right to travel is a part of the liberty of which the citizen cannot be deprived without due process of law under the Fifth Amendment." Kent v. Dulles, 357 US 116, 125 (1958).
Freedom of association in the U.S. is restricted by the Smith Act, which bans political parties which advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.
Further information: National Security Strategy of the United States
Cold War or the War against Terror. 70,000 Americans of Japanese ancestry were legally interned during World War II under Executive Order 9066. In some instances the federal courts have allowed these exceptions, while in others the courts have decided that the national security interest was insufficient. Presidents Lincoln, Wilson, and F.D. Roosevelt ignored such judicial decisions. Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery
Posted January 31st, 2012 at 03:24pm
Human rights and Human rights in the USA
Human rights are "commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being." Human rights are thus conceived as universal (applicable everywhere) and egalitarian (the same for everyone). These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery
in both national and international law. The doctrine of human rights in international practice, within international law, global and regional institutions, in the policies of states and in the activities of non-governmental organizations, has been a cornerstone of public policy around the world. In The idea of human rights Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ER/S Battery
The modern sense of human rights can be traced to Renaissance Europe and the Protestant Reformation, alongside the disappearance of the feudal authoritarianism and religious conservativism that dominated the Middle Ages. Human rights were defined as a result of European scholars attempting to form a "secularized version of Judeo-Christian ethics". Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery
the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 encoded into law a number of fundamental civil rights and civil freedoms.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen approved by the National Assembly of France, August 26, 1789.
among them the African American Civil Rights Movement, and more recent diverse identity politics movements, on behalf of women and minorities in the United States. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery
One of the oldest Western philosophies of human rights is that they are a product of a natural law, stemming from different philosophical or religious grounds. Other theories hold that human rights codify moral behavior which is a human social product developed by a process of biological and social evolution (associated with Hume). Sony VGP-BPS9A Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery Friedrich Nietzsche and Karl Marx. Political philosophy professor Charles Blattberg argues that discussion of human rights, being abstract, demotivates people from upholding the values that rights are meant to affirm. Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery
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positive, meaning that they require active provision of entitlements by the state (as opposed to the state being required only to prevent the breach of rights)
Main article: International human rights law
United Nations Charter
"It is not a treaty...[In the future, it] may well become the international Magna Carta." Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish text of the Universal Declaration in 1949. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21EF Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-BZ31XT Battery and whether, or how, it should be enforced. The Commission proceeded to frame the UDHR and accompanying treaties, but the UDHR quickly became the priority. Canadian law professor John Humphrey and French lawyer Ren Cassin were responsible for much of the cross-national research and the structure of the document respectively, Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery
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Structure of the United Nations Human Rights Bodies and Mechanisms
The UN General Assembly
The assembly has several subsidiary organs that deal with specific human rights issues, such as the Special Committee on Decolonisation and the Special Commission against Apartheid (no longer operational). In addition the general assembly has set up a number of subsidiary organs that consider human rights issues in a number of high-profile contexts: Sony Vaio VGN-NS11J/S Battery
Members serve a maximum of six years and may have their membership suspended for gross human rights abuses. The Council is based in Geneva, and meets three times a year; with additional meetings to respond to urgent situations. Sony Vaio VGN-NS20EF/P Battery
Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery It is important to note that unlike the other treaty bodies, the economic committee is not an autonomous body responsible to the treaty parties, but directly responsible to the Economic and Social Council and ultimately to the General Assembly. This means that the Economic Committee faces particular difficulties at its disposal only relatively "weak" means of implementation in comparison to other treaty bodies. Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/S Battery
The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination monitors the CERD and conducts regular reviews of countries' performance. It can make judgments on complaints against member states allowing it, Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery but these are not legally binding. It issues warnings to attempt to prevent serious contraventions of the convention. Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery
Regional human rights regimes
Posted January 30th, 2012 at 04:03pm
The Iguatemi Faria Lima, in Faria Lima Avenue, is the Brazil's oldest mall, opened in 1966. It is considered the 11th most expensive shopping area in the world, according to Cushman & Wakefield. Among the more than 30 international luxury brands are Burberry, Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J Battery
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Daiane Conterato at S o Paulo Fashion Week.
S o Paulo Gay Pride Parade.
Dell Inspiron XPS M1710 Battery ganized by evangelical churches, features concerts with 30 Christian bands carried on 17 flatbed trucks performing live as participants march through Brazil's financial capital. Dell Studio 15 Battery
Electronic Language International Festival.
cinema, poetry, anime/comics fans meetings and acrobatic performances. The event takes place in several parts of the downtown area, as well as some cultural centers, clubs and selected schools. In 2010, according to S o Paulo Municipality, the event attracted around 4 million people.
S o Paulo has a quite well developed system of primary and secondary, both public and private, and a variety of vocational-technical schools. More than nine-tenths of the population is literate, and roughly the same proportion of those age 7 to 14 are enrolled in school. Dell Latitude E5420M Battery
The Pontifical Catholic University of S o Paulo was established in 1946 and has earned an enviable reputation among the continent's private institutions of higher learning. Also of note among Greater S o Paulo's many other public and private colleges and universities is the School of Business Administration of the Get lio Vargas Foundation. Dell Latitude E6510 Battery
32,553 ambulatory clinics, centers and professional offices (physicians, dentists and others);
Institute of Cancer of S o Paulo is the largest hospital of cancer in Brazil.
A population estimated in more than 6,000,000 citizens uses these facilities, which provide drugs at no cost, and manages an extensive family health program (PSF - Programa de Sa de da Fam lia). Dell Latitude E6500 Battery
The Rede S o Paulo Saud vel (Healthy S o Paulo Network) is a satellite-based digital TV corporate channel, developed by the Municipal Health Secretary of S o Paulo, with the goal of bringing programs focused on health promotion and health education, which may be watched by citizens seeking health care in its units in the city. Dell Latitude E6400 Battery
Sala S o Paulo.
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M rio de Andrade Library.
Victor Civita Latin American Library.
Municipal Theatre of S o Paulo, "Teatro Municipal de S o Paulo."
Ipiranga Museum, "Museu do Ipiranga."
Memorial of the Immigrant, "Memorial do Imigrante."
Museu de Arte de S o Paulo
S o Paulo Museum of Art, "Museu de Arte de S o Paulo" in Paulista Avenue.
Main article: Tourism in Brazil
Ibirapuera Park at night during Christmas.
Brooklin new Commercial Street.
Cathedral Square, in downtown Sao Paulo.
isplays more than 3,200 animals, 102 species of mammals, 216 species of birds, 95 species of reptiles, 15 species of amphibians and 16 species of invertebrates, in enclosures that replicate the natural habitats of these animals. Dell XPS M1210 Battery
he Zoo's farm of 572 ha, produces vegetables used in the manufacture of feed for various animals, and material to the enclosures where the animals stay. There are animals that need extra area for mating. Dell XPS M1330 Battery
The zoo also counts with a nursery for rejected puppies and incubators for hatching eggs of birds and reptiles. Its library of more than four thousand volumes is open to the public. Its partnerships with other state, federal and foreign research institutions include researches that aim to facilitate the preservation of endangered species. Dell XPS M140 Battery
The Aqu rio de S o Paulo (S o Paulo Aquarium) it's one of the largest aquariums in Latin America, with an area of 9,000 square meters and 2 million liters of water. It has approximately 3,000 copies of about 300 species of animals, and it's located in the Ipiranga neighbourhood. Dell XPS M1530 Battery
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Posted January 30th, 2012 at 03:18pm
The largest metropolitan areas in Brazil are S o Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte all in the Southeastern Region with 19.5, 11.5, and 5.1 million inhabitants respectively. Almost all of the state capitals are the largest cities in their states, except for Vit ria, the capital of Esp rito Santo, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31J/S Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery with some influences from the Amerindian and African languages, especially West African and Bantu. As a result, the language is somewhat different, mostly in phonology, from the language of Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries (the dialects of the other countries, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery
Main article: Culture of Brazil
1 x 0
Choro "1 x 0" ("Um a zero"), recorded by Pixinguinha and Benedito Lacerda. Choro is a brazilian genre of instrumental music.
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Brazilian art has developed since the 16th century into different styles that range from Baroque (the dominant style in Brazil until the early 19th century) to Romanticism, Modernism, Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism and Abstractionism. Sony Vaio VGN-SR4VR/H Battery
Feijoada, a dish made with black beans, pork, rice, collard greens, cassava flour and orange
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Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Brazil.
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S o Paulo
S o Paulo (Portuguese pronunciation: [s w pawlu] ( listen), English: / sa pa lo / Saint Paul;) is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. Sony VAIO VGN-FW3ZJ Battery
Sony VGN-CS11Z/T Battery The clergymen established a mission at the Col gio de S o Paulo de Piratininga, aimed at converting the Tupi-Guarani indigenous Brazilians to the Catholic faith, as well as make it easier for the Portuguese crown to rule them. Sony VGN-CS21S/R Battery
S o Paulo central square.
The Martinelli Building, a symbol of S o Paulo's iconic early 20th century architecture.
Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/T Battery long the 20th century, the booming economy of the city also attracted huge waves of migrants from the poorest regions in Brazil, such as the Northeast. Sony VGN-CS31S/P Battery
Skyscrapers in the Berrini region.
Modern highrises in the margins of the Pinheiros River, symbols of the growing Brazilian economy. Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/S Battery
In the 1960s S o Paulo came to include almost half of the population of the State of S o Paulo (Brazil's most populous state) and to account for about one-third of the country's total industrial employment. Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF/S Battery
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The historic center profited with the return of the city's government and the arrival of private universities, although businesses continue to move out to new boom neighborhoods such as Itaim and Berrini. Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF/w Battery
Pico do Jaragu Mountain is the highest point in the city, at 1,135 metres (3,724 ft).
Sony VAIO VGN-NW20SF Battery e original flora consisted mainly of a great variety of broadleaf evergreens. Today, non-native species are common, as the mild climate and abundant rainfall permit a multitude of tropical, subtropical and temperate plants to be cultivated, with eucalyptus being especially ubiquitous. Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NW20ZF Battery he highest temperature recorded was 35.3 C (95.5 F) on November 15, 1985. and the lowest recorded was 2 C (28 F) on August 2, 1955, and on the same day 3.8 C (25.2 F) was recorded unofficially. The average temperatures throughout the year are similar to those of Sydney and Los Angeles. Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery
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There is also a geographic radial division established in 2007 by the mayor Gilberto Kassab. These geographical areas (historical downtown, extended downtown, north, south, east, west, Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery
ortheast, northwest, southeast and southwest) are each identified with a distinct color in the buses and in the street plaques. These have no relationship with the subprefectures and districts, and, in some cases, the same district may be in two or more geographic regions. Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery
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Sony VGP-BPS13B/S Battery hanges in work relationships and cycles of droughts stimulated the high migration rate. The Northeastern migrants live mainly in hazardous and unhealthy areas of the city, in corti os, in various slums (favelas) of the metropolis, because they are cheaper housing alternatives. According to the 2000 Brazilian Census, Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 Battery
Sony VGP-BPS13B/G Battery there were 3,641,148 people from Northeastern Brazil living in S o Paulo, about 20% of the city's population. According to another resource, the largest concentration of Northeastern migrants was found in the area of S /Br s (districts of Br s, Bom Retiro, Cambuci, Pari and S ). In this area they composed 41% of the population. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M Battery
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Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery 150,000 people of Greek descent, 250,000 people of French descent and 50,000 people of Korean descent.
Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Battery n 2009, a councilman from S o Paulo, Juscelino Gadelha, presented a project designed to transform Mooca's accent on "intangible property" of the city of S o Paulo and then protected by law. If approved, the accent of people from Mooca will be preserved on recordings and transcripts. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery
Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery he local accent with Italian influences became notorious through the songs of Adoniran Barbosa, a Brazilian samba singer born to Italian parents who used to sing using the local accent. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery
Posted January 30th, 2012 at 03:56pm
Brazil and S o Paulo
Brazil officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people. It is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas and the largest lusophone country in the world. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery
Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 km (4,655 mi). It is bordered on the north by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French overseas region of French Guiana; on the northwest by Colombia; Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ER/S Battery
Main article: History of Brazil
The first Christian mass in Brazil, 1500.
Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31ER Battery In 1680 they reached the far south and founded Sacramento on the bank of the Rio de la Plata, in the Eastern Strip region (present-day Uruguay).
Declaration of the Brazilian independence by Emperor Pedro I on 7 September 1822.
The public flogging of a slave in Rio de Janeiro. From Jean-Baptiste Debret, Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil (1834-1839).
Brazilian forces (in blue uniform) engage the Paraguayan army (some in red uniform and other shirtless) during the War of the Triple Alliance. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21J/S Battery
The Brazilian coup d' tat of 1930 raised Get lio Vargas (center with military uniform but no hat) to power. He ruled the country for fifteen years. Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery
from the unfoldings of the encilhamento bubble and of the 1st naval revolt, the country entered in a prolonged cycle of financial, social and political instability, that would extend until the 1920s keeping the country plagued by several rebellions, both civilian as military, Sony VGP-BPS9B Battery
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Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery In retaliation, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy extended their submarine warfare against Brazil, which led the country to enter the war on the allied side in August of that year. Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery
The transition from Fernando Henrique Cardoso to Lu s In cio Lula da Silva indicated that Brazil had finally succeeded in achieving its long-sought political stability. Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery Sarney's unsuccessful government allowed the election in 1989 of the almost unknown Fernando Collor, who was subsequently impeached by the National Congress in 1992. Collor was succeeded by his Vice-President Itamar Franco, who appointed Fernando Henrique Cardoso as Minister of Finance. Sony Vaio VGN-AW21M/H Battery
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Main article: Geography of Brazil
Topography map of Brazil
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The Amazon Rainforest, the largest tropical forest in the world.
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Main article: Politics of Brazil
The National Congress in Bras lia, the capital of Brazil.
The form of government is that of a democratic republic, with a presidential system. The president is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term, with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The current president is Dilma Rousseff who was inaugurated on January 1, Sony Vaio VGN-NS10L/S Battery
2011. The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government. Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of law in Brazil. The National Congress is the Federation's bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively. Sony Vaio VGN-NS20E/P Battery
Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress. It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. The largest political parties are the Workers' Party (PT), Democrats (DEM), Sony Vaio VGN-NS20J/P Battery
Supreme Federal Court building at the Three Powers Plaza.
Itamaraty Palace, headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
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Main article: Economy of Brazil
An Embraer ERJ-135 commercial jet. Brazil is the world's third largest aircraft producer. Sony Vaio VGN-NW11S/T Battery
Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's seventh largest economy at market exchange rates and the eighth largest in purchasing power parity (PPP), according to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Brazil has a mixed economy with abundant natural resources. Sony Vaio VGN-NW11S/S Battery
ne of the issues the Central Bank of Brazil recently dealt with was an excess of speculative short-term capital inflows to the country, which may have contributed to a fall in the value of the U.S. dollar against the real during that period. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery
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a performance that puts agribusiness in a position of distinction in terms of Brazil's trade balance, in spite of trade barriers and subsidizing policies adopted by the developed countries.[vague] Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZU Battery
The industry from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables accounted for 30.8% of the gross domestic product. Industry, which is often technologically advanced, is highly concentrated in metropolitan S o Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Campinas, Porto Alegre, and Belo Horizonte. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J Battery
Brazilian National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light in Campinas.
Uranium is enriched at the Resende Nuclear Fuel Factory to fuel the country's energy demands and plans are underway to build the country's first nuclear submarine. Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin America Sony VAIO VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery
BR-116 highway in the outskirts of Fortaleza.
There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States. S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, near S o Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport, Sony Vaio VGN-FW5MJF/H Battery
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Brazilians of Italian descent with former President of Brazil, in Rio Grande do Sul.
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