Human rights and Human rights in the USA 3

Posted January 31st, 2012 at 03:27pm

The Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution forbids unreasonable search and seizure without a warrant, but some administrations have claimed exceptions to this rule to investigate alleged conspiracies against the government. During the Cold War, the Federal Bureau of Investigation established COINTELPRO to infiltrate and disrupt left-wing organizations, including those that supported the rights of black Americans. Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery
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National security, as well as other concerns like unemployment, has sometimes led the United States to toughen its generally liberal immigration policy. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 all but banned Chinese immigrants, who were accused of crowding out American workers. Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery

[edit]Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting Initiative
The federal government has set up a data collection and storage network that keeps a wide variety of data on tens of thousands of Americans who have not been accused of committing a crime. Operated primarily under the direction of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery
the program is known as the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting Initiative or SAR. Reports of suspicious behavior noticed by local law enforcement or by private citizens are forwarded to the program, and profiles are constructed of the persons under suspicion.[67] see also Fusion Center. Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery

[edit]Labor rights

Main article: Labor rights
Labor rights in the United States have been linked to basic constitutional rights.[68] Comporting with the notion of creating an economy based upon highly skilled and high wage labor employed in a capital-intensive dynamic growth economy, the United States enacted laws mandating the right to a safe workplace, Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF Battery
Workers compensation, Unemployment insurance, fair labor standards, collective bargaining rights, Social Security, along with laws prohibiting child labor and guaranteeing a minimum wage.[69] While U.S. workers tend to work longer hours than other industrialized nations, lower taxes and more benefits give them a larger disposable income than those of most industrialized nations, Sony VAIO VGN-NW24S Battery however the advantage of lower taxes have been challenged. See: Disposable and discretionary income. U.S. workers are among the most productive in the world.[70] During the 19th and 20th centuries, safer conditions and workers' rights were gradually mandated by law.[71] Sony VAIO VGN-NW24S BatteryIn 1935, the National Labor Relations Act recognized and protected "the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands." Sony VAIO VGN-NW26M Battery

However, many states hold to the principle of at-will employment, which says an employee can be fired for any or no reason, without warning and without recourse, unless violation of State or Federal civil rights laws can be proven. Sony VAIO VGN-NW20ZF Battery
[edit]Health care

See also: Health care in the United States
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in 1948, states that “everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of oneself and one’s family, including food, clothing, Sony VAIO VGN-NW20SF Battery
housing, and medical care.”[72] In addition, the Principles of Medical Ethics of the American Medical Association require medical doctors to respect the human rights of the patient, including that of providing medical treatment when it is needed.[73] Americans' rights in health care are regulated by the US Patients' Bill of Rights.[citation needed] Sony VGP-BPl13 Akku,,


Unlike most other industrialized nations, the United States does not offer most of its citizens subsidized health care. The United States Medicaid program provides subsidized coverage to some categories of individuals and families with low incomes and resources, including children, pregnant women, and very low-income Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Akku,

people with disabilities (higher-earning people with disabilities do not qualify for Medicaid, although they do qualify for Medicare). However, according to Medicaid's own documents, "the Medicaid program does not provide health care services, even for very poor persons, unless they are in one of the designated eligibility groups."[74] Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Akku,

Nonetheless, some states offer subsidized health insurance to broader populations. Coverage is subsidized for persons age 65 and over, or who meet other special criteria through Medicare. Every person with a permanent disability, Sony VGP-BPS13B/S Akku,

both young and old, is inherently entitled to Medicare health benefits a fact not all disabled US citizens are aware of. However, just like every other Medicare recipient, a disabled person finds that his or her Medicare benefits only cover up to 80% of anything in the U.S. medical system, Sony VGP-BPS13S Akku,
and that the other 20% must be paid by other means (typically supplemental, privately-held insurance plans, or cash out of the person's own pocket). Therefore, even the Medicare program is not truly national health insurance or universal health care the way most of the rest of the industrialized world understands it. Sony VGP-BPS13 Akku,

The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act of 1986, an unfunded mandate, mandates that no person may ever be denied emergency services regardless of ability to pay, citizenship, or immigration status.[75] Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q Akku,

The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act has been criticized by the American College of Emergency Physicians as an unfunded mandate.[76][77] Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Akku,

46.6 million residents, or 15.9 percent, were without health insurance coverage in 2005.[78] This number includes about ten million non-citizens, millions more who would be eligible for Medicaid but have never applied, and 18 million with annual household incomes above $50,000.[79] According to a study led by the Johns Hopkins Children's Center, Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Akku,
uninsured children who are hospitalized are 60% more likely to die than children who are covered by health insurance.[80] Akku Sony VGP-BPS21A

[edit]Justice system


This section may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page. (May 2009) Akku Sony VGP-BPS21B

The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Eighteenth Amendments of the Bill of Rights, along with the Fourteenth Amendment, ensure that criminal defendants have significant procedural rights that are unsurpassed by any other justice system.[81] Akku Sony VGP-BPS21/S
The Fourteenth Amendment's incorporation of due process rights adds these constitutional protections to the state and local levels of law enforcement.[81] Similarly, the United States possesses a system of judicial review over government action more powerful than any other in the world.[82] Akku Sony VGP-BPS21A/B
[edit]Death penalty
Further information: Capital punishment in the United States and Capital punishment debate
Capital punishment is controversial. Death penalty opponents regard the death penalty as inhumane[83] and criticize it for its irreversibility[84] and assert that it lacks a deterrent effect,[85] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Akku

as have several studies[86][87] and debunking studies which claim to show a deterrent effect.[88] According to Amnesty International, "the death penalty is the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights."[84] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Akku
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The 1972 US Supreme Court case Furman v. Georgia 408 U.S. 238 (1972) held that arbitrary imposition of the death penalty at the states' discretion constituted cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution. In California v. Anderson 64 Cal.2d 633, 414 P.2d 366 (Cal. 1972), Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L Akku

the Supreme Court of California classified capital punishment as cruel and unusual and outlawed the use of capital punishment in California, until it was reinstated in 1976 after the federal supreme court rulings Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976), Jurek v. Texas, 428 U.S. 262 (1976), and Proffitt v. Florida, 428 U.S. 242 (1976).[89] As of January 25, 2008, the death penalty has been abolished in the District of Columbia and fourteen states, mainly in the Northeast and Midwest.[90] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z Akku

The UN special rapporteur recommended to a committee of the UN General Assembly that the United States be found to be in violation of Article 6 the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in regards to the death penalty in 1998, and called for an immediate capital punishment moratorium.[91] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M Akku
The recommendation of the special rapporteur is not legally binding under international law, and in this case the UN did not act upon the lawyer's recommendation.
Since the reinstatement of the death penalty in 1976 there have been 1077 executions in the United States (as of May 23, 2007).[92] There were 53 executions in 2006.[93] Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M Akku
Texas overwhelmingly leads the United States in executions, with 379 executions from 1976 to 2006;[94] the second-highest ranking state is Virginia, with 98 executions.[95]
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A ruling on March 1, 2005 by the Supreme Court in Roper v. Simmons prohibits the execution of people who committed their crimes when they were under the age of 18.[96] Between 1990 and 2005, Amnesty International recorded 19 executions in the United States for crime committed by a juvenile.[97] Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J Akku

It is the official policy of the European Union and a number of non-EU nations to achieve global abolition of the death penalty. For this reason the EU is vocal in its criticism of the death penalty in the US and has submitted amicus curiae briefs in a number of important US court cases related to capital punishment.[98] Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z Akku
The American Bar Association also sponsors a project aimed at abolishing the death penalty in the United States,[99] stating as among the reasons for their opposition that the US continues to execute minors and the mentally retarded, and fails to protect adequately the rights of the innocent.[100] Sony VAIO VGN-FW31ZJ Akku

Some opponents criticize the over-representation of blacks on death row as evidence of the unequal racial application of the death penalty. This over-representation is not limited to capital offenses, Sony VAIO VGN-FW32J Akku
in 1992 although blacks account for 12% of the US population, about 34 percent of prison inmates were from this group.[101] In McCleskey v. Kemp, it was alleged the capital sentencing process was administered in a racially discriminatory manner in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Sony VAIO VGN-FW Akku

In 2003, Amnesty International reported those who kill whites are more likely to be executed than those who kill blacks, citing of the 845 people executed since 1977, 80 percent were put to death for killing whites and 13 percent were executed for killing blacks, even though blacks and whites are murdered in almost equal numbers.[102] Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M Akku
[edit]Prison system
See also: Incarceration in the United States and Cutter v. Wilkinson
The United States is seen by social critics,[103] Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 Akku
including international and domestic human rights groups and civil rights organizations, as a state that violates fundamental human rights, because of disproportionately heavy, in comparison with other countries, Sony VAIO FW Battery
reliance on crime control, individual behavior control (civil liberties), and societal control of disadvantaged groups through a harsh police and criminal justice system. The U.S. penal system is implemented on the federal, and in particular on the state and local levels. This social policy has resulted in a high rate of incarceration, which affects Americans from the lowest socioeconomic backgrounds and racial minorities the hardest.[104][105] Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 Battery

Some have criticized the United States for having an extremely large prison population, where there have been reported abuses.[106] As of 2004 the United States had the highest percentage of people in prison of any nation. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M Battery
There were more than 2.2 million in prisons or jails, or 737 per 100,000 population, or roughly 1 out of every 136 Americans. According to The National Council on Crime and Delinquency, since 1990 the incarceration of youth in adult jails has increased 208%.[107] Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S Battery
In some states youth - juvenile is defined as young as 13 years old. The researchers for this report found that Juveniles often were incarcerated to await trial for up to two years and subjected to the same treatment of mainstream inmates. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery
The incarcerated adolescent is often subjected to a highly traumatic environment during this developmental stage. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Battery
The long term effects are often irreversible and detrimental.[108] "Human Rights Watch believes the extraordinary rate of incarceration in the United States wreaks havoc on individuals, families and communities, and saps the strength of the nation as a whole."[109] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery

Examples of mistreatment claimed include prisoners left naked and exposed in harsh weather or cold air;[110] "routine" use of rubber bullets[111] and pepper spray;,[110][111][111] solitary confinement of violent prisoners in soundproofed cells for 23 or 24 hours a day;[ Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery
and a range of injuries from serious injury to fatal gunshot wounds, with force at one California prison "often vastly disproportionate to the actual need or risk that prison staff faced."[111] Such behaviors are illegal, and "professional standards clearly limit staff use of force to that which is necessary to control prisoner disorder."[111] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery

Human Rights Watch raised concerns with prisoner rape and medical care for inmates.[113] In a survey of 1,788 male inmates in Midwestern prisons by Prison Journal, about 21% claimed they had been coerced or pressured into sexual activity during their incarceration and 7% claimed that they had been raped in their current facility.[114] Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery
Tolerance of serious sexual abuse and rape in United States prisons are consistently reported as widespread.[citation needed] It has been fought against by organizations such as Stop Prisoner Rape. Sony VGN-FW31ZJ battery

The United States has been criticized for having a high amount of non-violent and victim-less offenders incarcerated,[109][115][116] as half of all persons incarcerated under State jurisdiction are for non-violent offences and 20 percent are incarcerated for drug offences, mostly for possession of cannabis.[117][118] Sony VGN-FW32J battery

The United States is the only country in the world allowing sentencing of young adolescents to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. There are currently 73 Americans serving such sentences for crimes they committed at the age of 13 or 14. In December 2006 the United Nations took up a resolution calling for the abolition of this kind of punishment for children and young teenagers. Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery
185 countries voted for the resolution and only the United States against.[119]
[edit]Police brutality
In a 1999 report, Amnesty International said it had "documented patterns of ill-treatment across the U.S., including police beatings, unjustified shootings and the use of dangerous restraint techniques."[120] Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery
According to a 1998 Human Rights Watch report, incidents of police use of excessive force had occurred in cities throughout the U.S., and this behavior goes largely unchecked.[121] An article in USA Today reports that in 2006, Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery
96% of cases referred to the U.S. Justice Department for prosecution by investigative agencies were declined. In 2005, 98% were declined.[122] In 2001, the New York Times reported that the U.S. government is unable or unwilling to collect statistics showing the precise number of people killed by the police or the prevalence of the use of excessive force.[123] Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery
Since 1999, at least 148 people have died in the United States and Canada after being shocked with Tasers by police officers, according to a 2005 ACLU report.[124] Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Battery
In one case, a handcuffed suspect was tasered nine times by a police officer before dying, and six of those taserings occurred within less than three minutes. The officer was fired and faced the possibility of criminal charges.[125] Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

[edit]War on Terrorism

See also: War on Terrorism and Criticism of the War on Terrorism
[edit]Inhumane treatment and torture of captured non-citizens
See also: Torture and the United States and CIA prison system
International and U.S. law prohibits torture and other ill-treatment of any person in custody in all circumstances.[126] Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery
However, the United States Government has categorized a large number of people as unlawful combatants, a United States classification used mainly as an excuse to bypass international law, which denies the privileges of prisoner of war (POW) designation of the Geneva Conventions.[127] Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery

Certain practices of the United States military and Central Intelligence Agency have been condemned by some sources domestically and internationally as torture.[128][129] A fierce debate regarding non-standard interrogation techniques[130] exists within the US civilian and military intelligence community, with no general consensus as to what practices under what conditions are acceptable. Sony VGP-BPS13B/G Battery
Abuse of prisoners is considered a crime in the United States Uniform Code of Military Justice. According to a January 2006 Human Rights First report, there were 45 suspected or confirmed homicides while in US custody in Iraq and Afghanistan; "Certainly 8, as many as 12, people were tortured to death."[131] Sony VGP-BPS13B/S Battery

[edit]Abu Ghraib prison abuse

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Please consider summarizing the material while citing sources as needed.

This section may stray from the topic of the article. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page. (September 2010) Sony VAIO VGN-FW411ZRU Battery

See also: Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse
In 2004, photos showing humiliation and abuse of prisoners were leaked from Abu Ghraib prison, causing a political and media scandal in the US. Forced humiliation of the detainees included, but is not limited to nudity, rape, Sony VAIO VGN-AW11M/H Battery
human piling of nude detainees, masturbation, eating food out of toilets, crawling on hand and knees while American soldiers were sitting on their back sometimes requiring them to bark like dogs, and hooking up electrical wires to fingers, Sony VAIO VGN-AW11S/B Battery
toes, and penises.[132] Bertrand Ramcharan, acting UN High Commissioner for Human Rights stated that while the removal of Saddam Hussein represented "a major contribution to human rights in Iraq" and that the United States had condemned the conduct at Abu Ghraib and pledged to bring violators to justice, Sony VAIO VGN-AW11XU/Q Battery
"willful killing, torture and inhuman treatment" represented a grave breach of international law and "might be designated as war crimes by a competent tribunal."[133]
In addition to the acts of humiliation, there were more violent claims, such as American soldiers sodomizing detainees (including an event involving an underage boy), Sony VAIO VGN-AW21S/B Battery
an incident where a phosphoric light was broken and the chemicals poured on a detainee, repeated beatings, and threats of death.[132] Six military personnel were charged with prisoner abuse in the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal. The harshest sentence was handed out to Charles Graner, Sony VAIO VGN-AW21S/B Battery
who received a 10 year sentence to be served in a military prison and a demotion to private; the other offenders received lesser sentences.[134]
In their report The Road to Abu Ghraib, Human Rights Watch describe how:
The severest abuses at Abu Ghraib occurred in the immediate aftermath of a decision by Secretary Rumsfeld to step up the hunt for "actionable intelligence" among Iraqi prisoners.

Sony VAIO VGN-AW31ZJ/B Battery The officer who oversaw intelligence gathering at Guantanamo was brought in to overhaul interrogation practices in Iraq, and teams of interrogators from Guantanamo were sent to Abu Ghraib. The commanding general in Iraq issued orders to "manipulate an internee's emotions and weaknesses." Sony VAIO VGN-AW21XY/Q Battery
Military police were ordered by military intelligence to "set physical and mental conditions for favorable interrogation of witnesses." The captain who oversaw interrogations at the Afghan detention center where two prisoners died in detention posted "Interrogation Rules of Engagement" at Abu GhraibSony VAIO VGN-AW21Z/B Battery
authorizing coercive methods (with prior written approval of the military commander) such as the use of military guard dogs to instill fear that violate the Geneva Conventions and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman Degrading Treatment or Punishment.[135]
[edit]Enhanced interrogation and waterboarding Sony VAIO VGN-AW31S/B Battery
See also: Waterboarding and Enhanced interrogation techniques

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Please consider summarizing the material while citing sources as needed.
On February 6, 2008, the CIA director General Michael Hayden stated that the CIA had used waterboarding on three prisoners during 2002 and 2003, namely Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, Abu Zubayda and Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri.[136][137] Sony VAIO VGN-AW31XY/Q Battery

The June 21, 2004 issue of Newsweek stated that the Bybee memo, a 2002 legal memorandum drafted by former OLC lawyer John Yoo that described what sort of interrogation tactics against suspected terrorists or terrorist affiliates the Bush administration would consider legal, was "prompted by CIA questions about what to do with a top Qaeda captive, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

Abu Zubaydah, who had turned uncooperative ... and was drafted after White House meetings convened by George W. Bush's chief counsel, Alberto Gonzales, along with Defense Department general counsel William Haynes and David Addington, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery
Vice President Dick Cheney's counsel, who discussed specific interrogation techniques", citing "a source familiar with the discussions". Amongst the methods they found acceptable was waterboarding.[138] Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

In November 2005, ABC News reported that former CIA agents claimed that the CIA engaged in a modern form of waterboarding, along with five other "enhanced interrogation techniques," against suspected members of al Qaeda. Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery

UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Louise Arbour, stated on the subject of waterboarding "I would have no problems with describing this practice as falling under the prohibition of torture", and that violators of the UN Convention Against Torture should be prosecuted under the principle of universal jurisdiction.[139] Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery

Bent S rensen, Senior Medical Consultant to the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims and former member of the United Nations Committee Against Torture has said: Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN Battery

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It’s a clear-cut case: Waterboarding can without any reservation be labeled as torture. It fulfils all of the four central criteria that according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture (UNCAT) defines an act of torture. First, when water is forced into your lungs in this fashion, in addition to the pain you are likely to experience an immediate and extreme fear of death. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery
You may even suffer a heart attack from the stress or damage to the lungs and brain from inhalation of water and oxygen deprivation. In other words there is no doubt that waterboarding causes severe physical and/or mental suffering - one central element in the UNCAT’s definition of torture. HP HSTNN-C50C Battery

In addition the CIA’s waterboarding clearly fulfills the three additional definition criteria stated in the Convention for a deed to be labeled torture, since it is 1) done intentionally, 2) for a specific purpose and 3) by a representative of a state - in this case the US.[140] HP Pavilion DV5-1019TX Battery
Lt. Gen. Michael D. Maples, the director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, concurred by stating, in a hearing before the Senate Armed Services Committee, that he believes waterboarding violates Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions.[141] HP Pavilion DV5-1020 Battery

The CIA director testified that waterboarding has not been used since 2003.[142]
In April 2009, the Obama administration released four memos in which government lawyers from the Bush administration approved tough interrogation methods used against 28 terror suspects.

HP Pavilion DV6-1211AX Battery The rough tactics range from waterboarding (simulated drowning) to keeping suspects naked and denying them solid food.[143] HP Pavilion DV5-1020TX Battery

These memos were accompanied by the Justice Department's release of four Bush-era legal opinions covering (in graphic and extensive detail) the interrogation of 14 high-value terror detainees using harsh techniques beyond waterboarding. These additional techniques include keeping detainees in a painful standing position for long periods (Used often, once for 180 hours),[144] HP Pavilion DV4T Battery

HP Pavilion G60-420SA Battery using a plastic neck collar to slam detainees into walls, keeping the detainee's cell cold for long periods, beating and kicking the detainee, insects placed in a confinement box (the suspect had a fear of insects), sleep-deprivation, prolonged shackling, and threats to a detainee's family. One of the memos also authorized a method for combining multiple techniques.[143][145] HP Pavilion DV5 Battery
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Details from the memos also included the number of times that techniques such as waterboarding were used. A footnote said that one detainee was waterboarded 83 times in one month, while another was waterboarded 183 times in a month.[146] HP Pavilion DV7 Battery

HP Pavilion G60-415SA Battery [147] This may have gone beyond even what was allowed by the CIA's own directives, which limit waterboarding to 12 times a day.[147] The Fox News website carried reports from an un-named US official who claimed that these were the number of pourings, not the number of sessions.[148] HP Pavilion DV6 Battery

Physicians for Human Rights has accused the Bush administration of conducting illegal human experiments and unethical medical research during interrogations of suspected terrorists.[149] The group has suggested this activity was a violation of the standards set by the Nuremberg Trials.[150] HP Pavilion DV6T Battery

[edit]Guant namo Bay
The United States maintains a detention center at its military base at Guant namo Bay, Cuba where numerous enemy combatants of the war on terror are held. The detention center has been the source of various controversies regarding the legality of the center and the treatment of detainees.[151][152] Amnesty International has called the situation "a human rights scandal" in a series of reports.[153] HP Pavilion DV6Z Battery
775 detainees have been brought to Guant namo. Of these, many have been released without charge. As of January 2012, 171 detainees remain at Guantanamo.[154] The United States assumed territorial control over Guant namo Bay under the 1903 Cuban-American Treaty, which granted the United States a perpetual lease of the area.[155] HP Pavilion DV6-1100 Battery
United States, by virtue of its complete jurisdiction and control, maintains "de facto" sovereignty over this territory, while Cuba retained ultimate sovereignty over the territory. The current government of Cuba regards the U.S. presence in Guant namo as illegal and insists the Cuban-American Treaty was obtained by threat of force in violation of international law.[156] HP Pavilion DV6-2000 Battery

A delegation of UN Special Rapporteurs to Guantanamo Bay claimed that interrogation techniques used in the detention center amount to degrading treatment in violation of the ICCPR and the Convention Against Torture.[157] HP Pavilion DV6-1120SA Battery

In 2005 Amnesty International expressed alarm at the erosion in civil liberties since the 9/11 attacks. According to Amnesty International: HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA Battery

The Guant namo Bay detention camp has become a symbol of the United States administration’s refusal to put human rights and the rule of law at the heart of its response to the atrocities of 11 September 2001. It has become synonymous with the United States executive’s pursuit of unfettered power, HP Pavilion DV6-2018AX Battery
and has become firmly associated with the systematic denial of human dignity and resort to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment that has marked the USA’s detentions and interrogations in the "war on terror".[158]
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Amnesty International also condemned the Guant namo facility as "the gulag of our times", which raised heated conversation in the United States. The purported legal status of "unlawful combatants" in those nations currently holding detainees under that name has been the subject of criticism by other nations and international human rights institutions including Human Rights Watch and the International Committee of the Red Cross. HP Pavilion DV6-2019ER Battery

HP Pavilion G60-410SA Battery The ICRC, in response to the US-led military campaign in Afghanistan, published a paper on the subject.[159] HRW cites two sergeants and a captain accusing U.S. troops of torturing prisoners in Iraq and Afghanistan.[160] HP Pavilion DV6-2020AX Battery

However, former Republican governor Mike Huckabee, for example, has stated that the conditions in Guant namo are better than most US prisons.[161]
The US government argues that even if detainees were entitled to POW status, they would not have the right to lawyers, access to the courts to challenge their detention, or the opportunity to be released prior to the end of hostilities and that nothing in the Third Geneva Convention provides POWs such rights, HP Pavilion DV6-2020CA Battery
and POWs in past wars have generally not been given these rights.[162] The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld on June 29, 2006 that they were entitled to the minimal protections listed under Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions.[163] HP Pavilion DV6-2020EC Battery
Following this, on July 7, 2006, the Department of Defense issued an internal memo stating that prisoners would in the future be entitled to protection under Common Article 3.[164][165][166]
[edit]Extraordinary rendition HP Pavilion DV6-2021EL Battery

See also: Extraordinary rendition by the United States
United States citizens and foreign nationals are occasionally captured and abducted outside of the United States and transferred to secret US administered detention facilities, sometimes being held incommunicado for periods of months or years, a process known as extraordinary rendition.
According to The New Yorker, HP Pavilion DV6-2022ER Battery
"The most common destinations for rendered suspects are Egypt, Morocco, Syria, and Jordan, all of which have been cited for human-rights violations by the State Department, and are known to torture suspects."[167] HP Pavilion DV6-2023EC Battery

[edit]Notable cases
In November 2001, Yaser Esam Hamdi, a U.S. citizen, was captured by Afghan Northern Alliance forces in Konduz, Afghanistan, amongst hundreds of surrendering Taliban fighters and was transferred into U.S. custody. The U.S. government alleged that Hamdi was there fighting for the Taliban, while Hamdi, through his father, HP Pavilion G50 Battery
has claimed that he was merely there as a relief worker and was mistakenly captured. Hamdi was transferred into CIA custody and transferred to the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, but when it was discovered that he was a U.S. citizen, HP Pavilion G60 Battery
he was transferred to naval brig in Norfolk, Virginia and then he was transferred brig in Charleston, South Carolina. The Bush Administration identified him as an unlawful combatant and denied him access to an attorney or the court system, despite his Fifth Amendment right to due process. HP Pavilion G60-401SA Battery
In 2002 Hamdi's father filed a habeas corpus petition, the Judge ruled in Hamdi's favor and required he be allowed a public defender; however, on appeal the decision was reversed. In 2004, in the case of Hamdi v. Rumsfeld the U.S. Supreme court reversed the dismissal of a habeas corpus petition and ruled detainees who are U.S. citizens must have the ability to challenge their detention before an impartial judge. HP Pavilion G60-406SA Battery
In December 2004, Khalid El-Masri, a German citizen, was apprehended by Macedonian authorities when traveling to Skopje because his name was similar to Khalid al-Masri, an alleged mentor to the al-Qaeda Hamburg cell. After being held in a motel in Macedonia for over three weeks he was transferred to the CIA and extradited to Afghanistan. HP Pavilion DV7 Battery
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While held in Afghanistan, El-Masri claims he was sodomized, beaten, and repeatedly interrorgated about alleged terrorist ties.[168] After being in custody for five months, Condoleezza Rice learned of his detention and ordered his release. El-Masri was released at night on a desolate road in Albania, without apology, HP Pavilion DV7-1020 Battery
or funds to return home. He was intercepted by Albanian guards, who believed him to be a terrorist due to his haggard and unkept appearance. He was subsequently reunited with his wife who had returned to her family in Lebanon, HP Pavilion DV7-1130 Battery
with their children, because she thought her husband had abandoned them. Using isotope analysis, scientists at the Bavarian archive for geology in Munich analyzed his hair and verified that he was malnourished during his disappearance.[169] HP Pavilion DV7-1134 Battery

In 2007, U.S. President Bush signed an Executive order banning the use of torture in the CIA's interrogation program.[170]
[edit]Extrajudicial killings
On 30 April 2011, United States forces, authorised by the President of the United States, carried out the extrajudicial killing of Al-qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden on Pakistani territory.[171]

HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO Battery On 30 September 2011, the CIA carried out the extrajudicial killing of U.S. citizen and radical cleric Anwar al-Awlaki with a drone attack while the Al-Qaeda member was in Yemen.[172] HP Pavilion DV7-1137 Battery

[edit]International comparison

According to Canadian historian Michael Ignatieff, during and after the Cold War, the United States placed greater emphasis than other nations on human rights as part of its foreign policy, awarded foreign aid to facilitate human rights progress, and annually assessed the human rights records of other national governments.[7] HP Pavilion DV7-1150 Battery
The U.S. Department of State publishes a yearly report "Supporting Human Rights and Democracy: The U.S. Record" in compliance with a 2002 law which requires the Department to report on actions taken by the U.S. Government to encourage respect for human rights.[173] It also publishes a yearly "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.". HP Pavilion DV7-1170 Battery

  • [174] In 2006 the United States created a "Human Rights Defenders Fund" and "Freedom Awards."[175] The "Ambassadorial Roundtable Series", created in 2006, are informal discussions between newly-confirmed U.S. Ambassadors and human rights and democracy non-governmental organizations.[176] The United States also support democracy and human rights through several other tools.[177] Sony VGP-BPL8 Battery

  • The "Human Rights and Democracy Achievement Award" recognizes the exceptional achievement of officers of foreign affairs agencies posted abroad. Sony VGP-BPL8A Battery

  • In 2006 the award went to Joshua Morris of the embassy in Mauritania who recognized necessary democracy and human rights improvements in Mauritania and made democracy promotion one of his primary responsibilities. He persuaded the Government of Mauritania to re-open voter registration lists to an additional 85,000 citizens, Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery
  • which includes a significant number of Afro-Mauritanian minority individuals. He also organized and managed the largest youth-focused democracy project in Mauritania in 5 years. Sony VGP-BPS8A Battery

Nathaniel Jensen of the embassy in Vietnam was runner-up. He successfully advanced the human rights agenda on several fronts, including organizing the resumption of a bilateral Human Rights Dialogue, pushing for the release of Vietnam’s prisoners of concern, and dedicating himself to improving religion freedom in northern Vietnam.[178] Sony VGP-BPS8B Battery

  • Under legislation by congress, the United States declared that countries utilizing child soldiers may no longer be eligible for US military assistance, in an attempt to end this practice.[179] Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

[edit]Treaties ratified
See also International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights - United States
The U.S. has signed and ratified the following human rights treaties:

  • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (ratified with 5 reservations, 5 understandings, and 4 declarations.)[180] Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

Optional protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

Non-binding documents voted for:
Universal Declaration of Human Rights[183]
[edit]International Bill of Rights
See also International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights - United States

  • The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) are the legal treaties that enshrine the rights which are outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Together, Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery
  • and along with the first and second optional protocols of the ICCPR they constitute the International bill of rights[184][185] The US has not ratified the ICESCR or either of the optional protocols of the ICCPR. Sony VGP-BPS9/B Battery
  • Sony VGP-BPS9/S Battery

  • The US's ratification of the ICCPR was done with five reservations - or limits - on the treaty, 5 understandings and 4 declarations. Among these is the rejection of sections of the treaty which prohibit capital punishment.[186][187Sony VGP-BPS9A/B Battery
  • Included in the Senate's ratification was the declaration that "the provisions of Article 1 through 27 of the Covenant are not self-executing",[188] Sony VGP-BPS9A Battery
  • and in a Senate Executive Report stated that the declaration was meant to "clarify that the Covenant will not create a private cause of action in U.S. Courts."[189] This way of ratifying the treaty was criticized as incompatible with the Supremacy Clause by Louis Henkin.[190] Sony VGP-BPL9 Battery

  • As a reservation that is "incompatible with the object and purpose" of a treaty is void as a matter of international law, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, art. 19, 1155 U.N.T.S. 331 (entered into force Jan. 27, 1980) (specifying conditions under which signatory States can offer "reservations"),Sony VGP-BPS12 Battery

there is some issue as to whether the non-self-execution declaration is even legal under domestic law. At any rate, the United States is but a signatory in name only.
[edit]International Criminal Court
Further information: United States and the International Criminal Court

  • The U.S. has not ratified the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), which was drafted for prosecuting individuals above the authority of national courts in the event of accusations of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crime of aggression. Sony VGP-BPL12 Battery

Nations that have accepted the Rome Statute can defer to the jurisdiction of the ICC or must surrender their jurisdiction when ordered.

  • The US rejected the Rome Statute after its attempts to include the nation of origin as a party in international proceedings failed, and after certain requests were not met, including recognition of gender issues, "rigorous" qualifications for judges, Sony VGP-BPS22 Battery
  • viable definitions of crimes, protection of national security information that might be sought by the court, and jurisdiction of the UN Security Council to halt court proceedings in special cases.[191] Since the passage of the statute, Sony VGP-BPL22 Battery
  • the US has actively encouraged nations around the world to sign "bilateral immunity agreements" prohibiting the surrender of US personnel before the ICC[192] and actively attempted to undermine the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.[10] The US Congress also passed a law, Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery
  • American Service-Members' Protection Act (ASPA) authorizing the use of military force to free any US personnel that are brought before the court rather than its own court system.[193][194] Human Rights Watch criticized the United States for removing itself from the Statute[195] Sony VGP-BPS22/A Battery

Judge Richard Goldstone, the first chief prosecutor at The Hague war crimes tribunal on the former Yugoslavia, echoed these sentiments saying:

  • I think it is a very backwards step. It is unprecedented which I think to an extent smacks of pettiness in the sense that it is not going to affect in any way the establishment of the international criminal court...The US have really isolated themselves and are putting themselves into bed with the likes of China, the Yemen and other undemocratic countries.[195] Sony VGP-BPS10 Battery

  • While the US has maintained that it will "bring to justice those who commit genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes," its primary objections to the Rome Statute have revolved around the issues of jurisdiction and process. Sony VGP-BPS10/B Battery
  • A US ambassador for War Crimes Issues to the UN Security Council said to the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee that because the Rome Statute requires only one nation to submit to the ICC, and that this nation can be the country in which an alleged crime was committed rather than defendant’s country of origin, Sony VGP-BPS10A/B Battery
  • U.S military personnel and US foreign peaceworkers in more than 100 countries could be tried in international court without the consent of the US. The ambassador states that "most atrocities are committed internally and most internal conflicts are between warring parties of the same nationality, Sony VGP-BPS10A Battery
  • the worst offenders of international humanitarian law can choose never to join the treaty and be fully insulated from its reach absent a Security Council referral. Yet multinational peacekeeping forces operating in a country that has joined the treaty can be exposed to the court's jurisdiction even if the country of the individual peacekeeper has not joined the treaty."[191] Sony VGP-BPSL10 Battery

[edit]Other treaties not signed or signed but not ratified

  • Where the signature is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, the signature does not establish the consent to be bound. However, it is a means of authentication and expresses the willingness of the signatory state to continue the treaty-making process. Sony VGP-BP10S Battery
  • The signature qualifies the signatory state to proceed to ratification, acceptance or approval. It also creates an obligation to refrain, in good faith, from acts that would defeat the object and the purpose of the treaty.[196] Sony VGP-BPS13B/G Battery

The U.S. has not ratified the following international human rights treaties:[181]
First Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty Sony VGP-BPS13B/G Battery

Optional Protocol to CEDAW
Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture
Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (1951)
Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons (1954)
Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (1961)
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their FamiliesSony VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Battery

The US has signed but not ratified the following treaties:
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (signed but not ratified) Sony VAIO VGN-NR21J/S Battery

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (signed but not ratified)
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (signed but not ratified)
Non-binding documents voted against: Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Battery
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in September 2007.[197]
[edit]Inter-American human rights system
The US is a signatory to the 1948 American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man and has signed but not ratified the 1969 American Convention on Human Rights. It is a member of Inter-American Convention on the Granting of Political Rights to Women (1948). Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/T Battery
It does not accept the adjudicatory jurisdiction of the Costa Rica-based Inter-American Court of Human Rights.[198][199]
The US has not ratified any of the other regional human rights treaties of the Organization of American States,[181] which include: Pavilion G50-100EA

Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights to Abolish the Death Penalty (1990)
Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture (1985) COMPAQ PRESARIO CQ71 Battery

Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women (1994)
Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearance of Persons (1994)
Inter-American Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities COMPAQ PRESARIO CQ71-100 Battery

[edit]Coverage of violations in the media
Studies have found that the New York Times coverage of worldwide human rights violations is seriously biased, predominantly focusing on the human rights violations in nations where there is clear U.S. involvement, while having relatively little coverage of the human rights violations in other nations.[200][201] COMPAQ PRESARIO CQ70 Battery
Amnesty International's Secretary General Irene Khan explains, "If we focus on the U.S. it's because we believe that the U.S. is a country whose enormous influence and power has to be used constructively ... When countries like the U.S. are seen to undermine or ignore human rights, it sends a very powerful message to others."[202] COMPAQ PRESARIO CQ61-100 Battery

[edit]Further assessments

According to Freedom in the World, an annual report by US based think-tank Freedom House, which rates political rights and civil liberties, in 2007, the United States was ranked "Free" (the highest possible rating), together with 92 other countries. COMPAQ PRESARIO CQ60 Battery

The Polity data series, which rate regime and authority characteristics, covering the years 1800-2004, has ranked the United States with the highest possible rating since 1871.[203]

According to the Economist Magazine's Democracy Index, the US ranks 17 out of 167 nations.
According to the annual Worldwide Press Freedom Index published by Reporters Without Borders, due to wartime restrictions the United States was ranked 53rd from the top in 2006 (out of 168), 44th in 2005.[204] 22nd in 2004,[205] 31st in 2003[206] and 17th in 2002.[207]

According to the annual Corruption Perceptions Index, which was published by Transparency International, the United States was ranked 20th from the top least corrupt in 2006 (out of 163), 17th in 2005, 18th in 2003, and 16th in 2002. COMPAQ PRESARIO CQ45-307TX Battery

According to the annual Privacy International index of 2007, the United States was ranked an "endemic surveillance society", scoring only 1.5 out of 5 privacy points.[208] COMPAQ PRESARIO CQ45-306TX Battery

According to the Gallup International Millennium Survey, the United States ranked 23rd in citizens' perception of human rights observance when its citizens were asked, "In general, do you think that human rights are being fully respected, partially respected or are they not being respected at all in your country?"[209] COMPAQ PRESARIO CQ45 Battery

[edit]Other issues

In the aftermath of the devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina, criticism by some groups commenting on human rights issues was made regarding the recovery and reconstruction issues[210][211] The American Civil Liberties Union and the National Prison Project documented mistreatment of the prison population during the flooding, COMPAQ PRESARIO CQ40-315TX Battery while United Nations Special Rapporteur Doudou Di ne delivered a 2008 report on such issues.[214] The United States was elected in 2009 to sit on the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC),[215] which the U.S. State Department had previously asserted had lost its credibility by its prior stances[216] HP Pavilion DV6-1211AX Battery
and lack of safeguards against severe human rights violators taking a seat.[217] In 2006 and 2007, the UNHCR and Martin Scheinin were critical of the United States regard permitting executions by lethal injection, housing children in adult jails, subjecting prisoners to prolonged isolation in supermax prisons, using enhanced interrogation techniques and domestic poverty gaps.[218][219][220][221] HP Pavilion DV4-1125BR Battery

Human rights and Human rights in the USA 2

Posted January 31st, 2012 at 03:26pm

[edit]Non-governmental Organizations
Main article: Non-governmental Organizations
International non-governmental human rights organizations such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, International Service for Human Rights and FIDH monitor what they see as human rights issues around the world and promote their views on the subject. Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/P Battery
Human rights organizations have been said to ""translate complex international issues into activities to be undertaken by concerned citizens in their own community".[47] Human rights organizations frequently engage in lobbying and advocacy in an effort to convince the United Nations, supranational bodies and national governments to adopt their policies on human rights. Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/S Battery
bMany human-rights organizations have observer status at the various UN bodies tasked with protecting human rights. A new (in 2009) nongovernmental human-rights conference is the Oslo Freedom Forum, Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/W Battery a gathering described by The Economist as "on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum." The same article noted that human-rights advocates are more and more divided amongst themselves over how violations of human rights are to be defined, notably as regards the Middle East.[48] Sony Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T Battery


There is criticism of human-rights organisations who use their status but allegedly move away from their stated goals. For example, Gerald M. Steinberg, an Israel-based academic, maintains that NGOs take advantage of a "halo effect" and are "given the status of impartial moral watchdogs" by governments and the media.[49] Sony Vaio VGN-NW11Z/S Battery
Such critics claim that this may be seen at various governmental levels, including when human-rights groups testify before investigation committees.[50]
[edit]Human rights defenders
Main article: Human rights defender
Human rights defender is a term used to describe people who, individually or with others, act to promote or protect human rights. Human rights defenders are those men and women who act peacefully for the promotion and protection of those rights. Sony Vaio VGN-NW11S/T Battery

Multinational companies play an increasingly large role in the world, and have been responsible for numerous human rights abuses.[51] Although the legal and moral environment surrounding the actions of governments is reasonably well developed, that surrounding multinational companies is both controversial and ill-defined.[ Sony Vaio VGN-NW11S/S Battery
citation needed] Multinational companies' primary responsibility is to their shareholders, not to those affected by their actions. Such companies may be larger than the economies of some of the states within which they operate, Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery
and can wield significant economic and political power. No international treaties exist to specifically cover the behavior of companies with regard to human rights, and national legislation is very variable. Jean Ziegler, Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights on the right to food stated in a report in 2003: Sony Vaio VGN-NW20ZF Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-NW24S Battery

[T]he growing power of transnational corporations and their extension of power through privatization, deregulation and the rolling back of the State also mean that it is now time to develop binding legal norms that hold corporations to human rights standards and circumscribe potential abuses of their position of power. Sony Vaio VGN-NW26M Battery
Jean Ziegler[52]
In August 2003 the Human Rights Commission's Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights produced draft Norms on the responsibilities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises with regard to human rights.[53] These were considered by the Human Rights Commission in 2004, but have no binding status on corporations and are not monitored.[54] Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF Battery

[edit]Human rights violations

See also: War, Genocides in history, and Human rights defender
Human rights violations occur when actions by state (or non-state) actors abuse, ignore, or deny basic human rights (including civil, political, cultural, social, and economic rights). Furthermore, violations of human rights can occur when any state or non-state actor breaches any part of the UDHR treaty or other international human rights or humanitarian law. In regard to human rights violations of United Nations laws, Sony Vaio VGN-NW20SF Battery


Article 39 of the United Nations Charter designates the UN Security Council (or an appointed authority) as the only tribunal that may determine UN human rights violations. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

Human rights abuses are monitored by United Nations committees, national institutions and governments and by many independent non-governmental organizations, such as Amnesty International, International Federation of Human Rights, Human Rights Watch, World Organisation Against Torture, Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Battery
Freedom House, International Freedom of Expression Exchange and Anti-Slavery International. These organisations collect evidence and documentation of alleged human rights abuses and apply pressure to enforce human rights laws. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery

Wars of aggression, war crimes and crimes against humanity, including genocide, are breaches of International humanitarian law and represent the most serious of human rights violations. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery

In efforts to eliminate violations of human rights, building awareness and protesting inhumane treatment has often led to calls for action and sometimes improved conditions. The UN Security Council has interceded with peace keeping forces, and other states and treaties (NATO) have intervened in situations to protect human rights. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery

[edit]Substantive rights

[edit]Right to life
Main article: Right to life
“ Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life. ” Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery

Article 6.1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
The right to life describes the essential right to live, particularly that a human being has the right not to be killed by another human being. The concept of a right to life is central to debates on the issues of abortion, capital punishment, Sony VAIO VGN-FW11J Battery
euthanasia, self defense and war. According to many human rights activists, the death penalty violates this right.[55] The United Nations has called on states retaining the death penalty to establish a moratorium on capital punishment with a view to its abolition.[56] States which do not do so face considerable moral and political pressure. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11Z Battery
[edit]Freedom from torture
Main article: Torture
Throughout history, torture has been used as a method of political re-education, interrogation, punishment, and coercion. In addition to state-sponsored torture, individuals or groups may be motivated to inflict torture on others for similar reasons to those of a state; however, the motive for torture can also be for the sadistic gratification of the torturer, as in the Moors murders. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZRU Battery

Torture is prohibited under international law and the domestic laws of most countries in the 21st century. It is considered to be a violation of human rights, and is declared to be unacceptable by Article 5 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZU Battery

Signatories of the Third Geneva Convention and Fourth Geneva Convention officially agree not to torture prisoners in armed conflicts. Torture is also prohibited by the United Nations Convention Against Torture, which has been ratified by 147 states.[57] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J Battery

National and international legal prohibitions on torture derive from a consensus that torture and similar ill-treatment are immoral, as well as impractical.[58] Despite these international conventions, organizations that monitor abuses of human rights (e.g. Amnesty International, the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims) report widespread use condoned by states in many regions of the world.[59] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21ZR Battery
Amnesty International estimates that at least 81 world governments currently practice torture, some of them openly.[60]
Despite this, the number of slaves today is higher than at any point in history,[62] remaining as high as 12 million[63] to 27 million,[64][65][66] Most are debt slaves, largely in South Asia, who are under debt bondage incurred by lenders, sometimes even for generations.[67] Sony VAIO VGN-FW3ZJ Battery
Human trafficking is primarily for prostituting women and children into sex industries.[68]
Groups such as the American Anti-Slavery Group, Anti-Slavery International, Free the Slaves, the Anti-Slavery Society, and the Norwegian Anti-Slavery Society continue to campaign to rid the world of slavery. Sony VAIO VGN-FW41E/H Battery
[edit]Right to a fair trial
Main article: Right to a fair trial
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.[69] Sony VAIO VGN-FW41J/H Battery
The right to a fair trial has been defined in numerous regional and international human rights instruments. It is one of the most extensive human rights and all international human rights instruments enshrine it in more than one article.[70] Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M/H Battery

The right to a fair trial is one of the most litigated human rights and substantial case law has been established on the interpretation of this human right.[71] Despite variations in wording and placement of the various fair trial rights, international human rights instrument define the right to a fair trial in broadly the same terms.[72] The aim of the right is to ensure the proper administration of justice. As a minimum Sony VAIO VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery

Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without censorship. The term freedom of expression is sometimes used synonymously, but includes any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. In practice, Sony VAIO VGN-FW46M Battery
the right to freedom of speech is not absolute in any country and the right is commonly subject to limitations, such as on libel, slander, obscenity, incitement to commit a crime, etc. The right to freedom of expression is recognized as a human right under Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Sony VAIO VGN-FW4ZTJ/H Battery
Article 19 of the ICCPR states that "[e]veryone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference" and "everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice".Sony VAIO VGN-FW51 Battery

[edit]Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
Main articles: Freedom of thought, Conscience, and Freedom of religion
“ Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. ” Sony VAIO VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery

Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Freedom of thought, conscience and religion are closely related rights that protect the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, Sony VAIO VGN-FW51MF/H Battery to think and freely hold conscientious beliefs and to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any religion.[74] Sony Vaio VGN-FW5ZRF/H Battery
The freedom to leave or discontinue membership in a religion or religious group in religious terms called "apostasy" is also a fundamental part of religious freedom, covered by Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[75] Sony Vaio VGN-FW5ZTF/H Battery

Human rights groups such as Amnesty International organises campaigns to protect those arrested and or incarcerated as a prisoner of conscience because of their conscientious beliefs, particularly concerning intellectual, political and artistic freedom of expression and association.[76] Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/P Battery
In legislation, a conscience clause is a provision in a statute that excuses a health professional from complying with the law (for example legalising surgical or pharmaceutical abortion) if it is incompatible with religious or conscientious beliefs.[77] Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/S Battery
[edit]Rights debates
Events and new possibilities can affect existing rights or require new ones. Advances of technology, medicine, and philosophy constantly challenge the status quo of human rights thinking. Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/W Battery

[edit]Future generations
In 1997 UNESCO adopted the Declaration on the Responsibilities of the Present Generation Towards the Future Generation. The Declaration opens with the words: Sony Vaio VGN-SR4VR/H Battery

Mindful of the will of the peoples, set out solemnly in the Charter of the United Nations, to 'save succeeding generations from the scourge of war' and to safeguard the values and principles enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and all other relevant instruments of international law. Sony Vaio VGN-SR49VN/H Battery

Declaration on the Responsibilities of the Present Generation Towards the Future Generation
Article 1 of the declaration states "the present generations have the responsibility of ensuring that the needs and interests of present and future generations are fully safeguarded." The preamble to the declaration states that "at this point in history, Sony Vaio VGN-FW56Z Battery
the very existence of humankind and its environment are threatened" and the declaration covers a variety of issues including protection of the environment, the human genome, biodiversity, cultural heritage, peace, development, and education. The preamble recalls that the responsibilities of the present generations towards future generations has been referred to in various international instruments, Sony Vaio VGN-SR57S Battery
including the Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (UNESCO 1972), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio de Janeiro, 1992), Sony Vaio VGN-SR57V Battery
the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (UN Conference on Environment and Development, 1992), the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (World Conference on Human Rights, 1993) and a number of UN General Assembly resolutions relating to the protection of the global climate for present and future generations adopted since 1990.[78] Sony Vaio VGN-SR57X Battery

[edit]Sexual orientation and gender identity
See also: LGBT rights
Sexual orientation and gender identity rights relate to the expression of sexual orientation and gender identity based on the right to respect for private life and the right not to be discriminated against on the ground of "other status" as defined in various human rights conventions,
Sony Vaio VGN-SR59TH/H Battery
such as article 17 and 26 in the United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and article 8 and article 14 in the European Convention on Human Rights. Sony Vaio VGN-SR59VG/H Battery

Through the way many because of their religious beliefs claim that they support human rights in general while denying that LGBT rights are human rights, LGBT rights stand prominent in the very defense of the universal principle of the human rights. If human rights are understood in a way that makes it possible to exclude the basic rights of certain groups only because of certain religious and cultural prejudices, Sony Vaio VGN-SR59XG/H Battery
we find that the principle of universality is taken right out of the human rights, and human rights are transformed to a set of rules only reflecting certain historically values.[79] Sony Vaio VGN-FW56ZR Battery

Homosexuality is illegal in 76 countries[citation needed], and is punishable by execution in seven countries.[80] The criminalization of private, consensual, adult sexual relations, especially in countries where corporal or capital punishment is involved, is one of the primary concerns of LGBT human rights advocates.[81] Sony Vaio VGN-FW56SR Battery
Other issues include: government recognition of same-sex relationships, LGBT adoption, sexual orientation and military service, immigration equality, anti-discrimination laws, hate crime laws regarding violence against LGBT people, sodomy laws, anti-lesbianism laws, and equal age of consent for same-sex activity. Sony Vaio VGN-SR49VT/H Battery
A global charter for sexual orientation and gender identity rights has been proposed in the form of the 'Yogyakarta Principles', a set of 29 principles whose authors say they apply International Human Rights Law statutes and precedent to situations relevant to LGBT people's experience.[88] Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/W Battery

The principles were presented at a United Nations event in New York on November 7, 2007, co-sponsored by Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/P Battery

The principles have been acknowledged with influencing the French proposed UN declaration on sexual orientation and gender identity, which focuses on ending violence, criminalization and capital punishment and does not include dialogue about same-sex marriage or right to start a family.[89][90] Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/L Battery
The proposal was supported by 67 of the then 192 member countries of the United Nations, including all EU member states and the United States. An alternative statement opposing the proposal was initiated by Syria and signed by 57 member nations, including all 27 nations of the Arab League as well as Iran and North Korea.[91][92] Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/G Battery
Although both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights emphasize the importance of a right to work, neither of these documents explicitly mention trade as a mechanism for ensuring this fundamental right. And yet trade plays a key role in providing jobs.[93] Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/B Battery

Some experts argue that trade is inherent to human nature and that when governments inhibit international trade they directly inhibit the right to work and the other indirect benefits, like the right to education, that increased work and investment help accrue.[94] Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/W Battery

Others have argued that the ability to trade does not affect everyone equally often groups like the rural poor, indigenous groups and women are less likely to access the benefits of increased trade.[95] Sony Vaio VPCEA1S1E/P Battery

On the other hand, others think that it is no longer primarily individuals but companies that trade, and therefore it cannot be guaranteed as a human right.[citation needed] Additionally, trying to fit too many concepts under the umbrella of what qualifies as a human right has the potential to dilute their importance. Finally, it is difficult to define a right to trade as either "fair"[96] Sony Vaio VPCEA1S1E/L Battery
or "just" in that the current trade regime produces winners and losers but its reform is likely to produce (different) winners and losers.[97]
See also: The Recognition of Labour Standards within the World Trade Organisation and Investor state dispute settlement. Sony Vaio VPCEA1S1E/G Battery

See also: Water politics and Right to water
In November 2002, the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights issued a non-binding comment affirming that access to water was a human right:
the human right to water is indispensable for leading a life in human dignity. It is a prerequisite for the realization of other human rights. Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/B Battery

United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
This principle was reaffirmed at the 3rd and 4th World Water Councils in 2003 and 2006. This marks a departure from the conclusions of the 2nd World Water Forum in The Hague in 2000, which stated that water was a commodity to be bought and sold, not a right.[98]

Sony Vaio VGP-BPS22A Battery There are calls from many NGOs and politicians to enshrine access to water as a binding human right, and not as a commodity.[99][100] According to the United Nations, nearly 900 million people lack access to clean water and more than 2.6 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/L Battery
On July 28, 2010, the UN declared water and sanitation as human rights. By declaring safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right, the U.N. General Assembly made a step towards the Millennium Development Goal to ensure environmental sustainability, which in part aims to "halve, Sony Vaio VPCEA181 Battery
by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation".
[edit]Reproductive rights
Main article: reproductive rights
Reproductive rights are rights relating to reproduction and reproductive health.[101] The World Health Organisation defines reproductive rights as follows: Sony Vaio VGP-BPS22 Battery
Reproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery

World Health Organisation[102]
Reproductive rights were first established as a subset of human rights at the United Nations 1968 International Conference on Human Rights.[103] The sixteenth article of the resulting Proclamation of Teheran states, "Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children."[103][104] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ER/S Battery

Reproductive rights may include some or all of the following rights: the right to legal or safe abortion, the right to control one's reproductive functions, the right to quality reproductive healthcare, and the right to education and access in order to make reproductive choices free from coercion, discrimination, and violence.[105]

Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery
Reproductive rights may also be understood to include education about contraception and sexually transmitted infections, and freedom from coerced sterilization and contraception, protection from gender-based practices such as female genital cutting (FGC) and male genital mutilation (MGM). Sony Vaio VGN-NR31J/S Battery

Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/T Battery
[edit]Information and communication technologies
Main article: Right to Internet access
In October 2009, Finland's Ministry of Transport and Communications announced that every person in Finland would have the legal right to Internet access.[107] Since July 2010, the government has legally obligated telecommunications companies to offer broadband Internet access to every permanent residence and office. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31MR/S Battery

Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/S Battery The connection must be "reasonably priced" and have a downstream rate of at least 1 Mbit/s.[108Sony Vaio VGN-NR31SR/S Battery

Sony Vaio VGN-NR38S/S Battery ]
In March 2010, the BBC, having commissioned an opinion poll, reported that "almost four in five people around the world believe that access to the internet is a fundamental right."[109] The poll, conducted by the polling company GlobeScan for the BBC World Service, collated the answers of 27,973 adult citizens across 26 countries to find that 79% of adults either strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the statement: "access to the internet should be a fundamental right of all people".[110] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31S/S Battery

[edit]Relationship with other topics

[edit]Human rights and the environment
There are two basic conceptions of environmental human rights in the current human rights system. The first is that the right to a healthy or adequate environment is itself a human right (as seen in both Article 24 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, and Article 11 of the San Salvador Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights).[111][112Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/S Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/T Battery
The second conception is the idea that environmental human rights can be derived from other human rights, usually - the right to life, the right to health, the right to private family life and the right to property (among many others). This second theory enjoys much more widespread use in human rights courts around the world, as those rights are contained in many human rights documents. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery

The onset of various environmental issues, especially climate change, has created potential conflicts between different human rights. Human rights ultimately require a working ecosystem and healthy environment, but the granting of certain rights to individuals may damage these. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38E/S Battery
Such as the conflict between right to decide number of offspring and the common need for a healthy environment, as noted in the tragedy of the commons.[113] In the area of environmental rights, the responsibilities of multinational corporations, so far relatively unaddressed by human rights legislation, is of paramount consideration.[citation needed] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Battery
Environmental Rights revolve largely around the idea of a right to a livable environment both for the present and the future generations. Sony VGN-CR11Z Battery
Sony VGN-CR21E Battery

[edit]National security
See also: National security and Anti-terrorism legislation
With the exception of non-derogable human rights (international conventions class the right to life, the right to be free from slavery, the right to be free from torture and the right to be free from retroactive application of penal laws as non-derogable),[114] the UN recognises that human rights can be limited or even pushed aside during times of national emergency - although Sony VGN-CR21S Battery

the emergency must be actual, affect the whole population and the threat must be to the very existence of the nation. The declaration of emergency must also be a last resort and a temporary measure. Sony VGN-CR21SR Battery
United Nations. The Resource[114]
Rights that cannot be derogated for reasons of national security in any circumstances are known as peremptory norms or jus cogens. Such United Nations Charter obligations are binding on all states and cannot be modified by treaty. Sony VGN-CR21Z Battery
Examples of national security being used to justify human rights violations include the Japanese American internment during World War II,[115] Stalin's Great Purge,[116] and the modern-day abuses of terror suspects rights by some countries, often in the name of the War on Terror.[117][118] Sony VGN-CR31E Battery

[edit]Relativism and universalism
Main articles: Cultural relativism, Moral relativism, and Moral universalism
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Relativists argue that human rights must avoid pushing the values of a single culture at the expense of others. "The White Man's Burden" is seen as an example of the West using the spread of Western culture as a justification for colonization.
Sony VGN-CR31SR Battery

Universalists argue that some practices violate the norms of all human cultures. They point out that although Female Genital Cutting is prevalent in Africa, no religion supports the practice, and the tradition is in violation of women's rights. Sony VGN-CR31Z Battery
The UDHR enshrines universal rights that apply to all humans equally, whichever geographical location, state, race or culture they belong to. However, in academia there is a dispute between scholars that advocate moral relativism and scholars that advocate moral universalism. Sony VGN-CR31ZR Battery

Relativists do not argue against human rights, but concede that human rights are social constructed and are shaped by cultural and environmental contexts. Universalists argue that human rights have always existed, and apply to all people regardless of culture, race, sex, or religion. Sony VGN-CR41S Battery

More specifically, proponents of cultural relativism argue for acceptance of different cultures, which may have practices conflicting with human rights. Relativists caution that universalism could be used as a form of cultural, economic or political imperialism. Sony VGN-CR41SR Battery
The White Man's Burden is used as an example of imperialism and the destruction of local cultures justified by the desire to spread Eurocentric values.[119] In particular, the concept of human rights is often claimed to be fundamentally rooted in a politically liberal outlook which,
Sony Vaio VGN-FW56SR Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-SR49VT/H Battery although generally accepted in Europe, Japan or North America, is not necessarily taken as standard elsewhere.
Opponents of relativism argue that some practices exist that violate the norms of all human cultures. A common example is female genital mutilation, which occurs in different cultures in Africa, Asia and South America. It is not mandated by any religion, Sony VGN-CR41Z Battery
but has become a tradition in many cultures. It is considered a violation of women's and girl's rights by much of the international community, and is outlawed in some countries. Sony VGN-CR41ZR Battery

The former Prime Ministers of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, and of Malaysia, Mahathir bin Mohamad both claimed in the 1990s that Asian values were significantly different from western values and included a sense of loyalty and foregoing personal freedoms for the sake of social stability and prosperity, and therefore authoritarian government is more appropriate in Asia than democracy. Lee Kuan Yew argued that: Sony VGN-CR42S Battery

What Asians value may not necessarily be what Americans or Europeans value. Westerners value the freedoms and liberties of the individual. As an Asian of Chinese cultural background, my values are for a government which is honest, effective, and efficient. Sony VGN-CR42Z Battery

Lee Kuan Yew, 'Democracy, Human Rights and the Realities', Tokyo, Nov 10, 1992[120]
In response, critics have pointed out that cultural relativism could be used as a justification for authoritarianism. An example is in 1981, Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/P Battery

when the Iranian representative to the United Nations, Said Rajaie-Khorassani, articulated the position of his country regarding the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by saying that the UDHR was "a secular understanding of the Judeo-Christian tradition",Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/S Battery
which could not be implemented by Muslims without trespassing the Islamic law.[121] The Asian Values argument was criticized by Mahathir's former deputy: Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/W Battery

Sony Vaio VGN-FW56ZR Battery
To say that freedom is Western or unAsian is to offend our traditions as well as our forefathers, who gave their lives in the struggle against tyranny and injustices.
A. Ibrahim in his keynote speech to the Asian Press Forum title Media and Society in Asia, December 2, 1994 Sony Vaio VGN-SR4VR/H Battery

and by Singapore's opposition leader Chee Soon Juan, who states that it is racist to assert that Asians do not want human rights.[122]
Defenders of moral universalism argue that relativistic arguments neglect the fact that modern human rights are new to all cultures, dating back no further than the UDHR in 1948. They argue that the UDHR was drafted by people from many different cultures and traditions, including a US Roman Catholic, Sony Vaio VGN-SR49VN/H Battery
a Chinese Confucian philosopher, a French zionist and a representative from the Arab League, amongst others, and drew upon advice from thinkers such as Mahatma Gandhi.[25] Michael Ignatieff has argued that cultural relativism is almost exclusively an argument used by those who wield power in cultures which commit human rights abuses, Sony Vaio VGN-FW56Z Battery
and that those whose human rights are compromised are the powerless.[123] This reflects the fact that the difficulty in judging universalism versus relativism lies in who is claiming to represent a particular culture. Sony Vaio VGN-SR57S Battery

Although the argument between universalism and relativism is far from complete, it is an academic discussion in that all international human rights instruments adhere to the principle that human rights are universally applicable. The 2005 World Summit reaffirmed the international community's adherence to this principle: Sony Vaio VGN-SR57V Battery

The universal nature of human rights and freedoms is beyond question.
2005 World Summit, paragraph 121
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Human rights in the United States are legally protected by the l Constitution of the United States and amendments,[2][3] conferred by treaty, and enacted legislatively through Congress, state legislatures, and plebiscites (state referenda). Sony Vaio VGN-SR59TH/H Battery
Federal courts in the United States have jurisdiction over international human rights laws as a federal question, arising under international law, which is part of the law of the United States.[4][page needed]
Sony Vaio VGN-SR59XG/H Battery
The first human rights organization in the Thirteen Colonies of British America, dedicated to the abolition of slavery, was formed by Anthony Benezet in 1775. A year later, the Declaration of Independence would advocate for civil liberties based on the self-evident truth “that all men are created equal, Sony Vaio VGN-SR59VG/H Battery that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”[5] This view of human liberties postulates that fundamental rights are not granted by the government but are inalienable and inherent to each individual, anteceding government.[6] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

Holding to these principles, the United States Constitution, adopted in 1787, created a republic that guaranteed several rights and civil liberties. Those rights and liberties were further codified in the Bill of Rights Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Battery
(the first ten amendments of the Constitution) and subsequently extended over time to more universal applicability through judicial rulings and law and reflecting the evolving norms of society slavery being constitutionally abolished in 1865 and women's suffrage being established nationally in 1920. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery

In the 20th century, the United States took a leading role in the creation of the United Nations and in the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[7] Much of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was modeled in part on the U.S. Bill of Rights.[8] Even as such, the United States is in violation of the Declaration, Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery

in as much that "everyone has the right to leave any country" because the government may prevent the entry and exit of anyone from the United States for foreign policy, national security, or child support rearage reasons by revoking their passport.[9] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery

According to Human Rights: The Essential Reference, "the American Declaration of Independence was the first civic document that met a modern definition of human rights."[11] The Constitution recognizes a number of inalienable human rights, Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery

including freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom of religion, the right to keep and bear arms, freedom from cruel and unusual punishment, and the right to a fair trial by jury.[12]
Constitutional amendments have been enacted as the needs of the society evolved.

Sony VAIO VGN-FW54M Battery The Ninth Amendment and Fourteenth Amendment recognize that not all human rights have yet been enumerated. The Civil Rights Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act are examples of human rights that were enumerated by Congress well after the Constitution's writing. Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery
The scope of the legal protections of human rights afforded by the US government is defined by case law, particularly by the precedent of the Supreme Court of the United States. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZRU Battery

Within the federal government, the debate about what may or may not prove to be an emerging human right is held in two forums, the United States Congress which may enumerate these or the Supreme Court which may articulate rights not recognized. Additionally the individual states, either through court action or legislation, Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZU Battery
have often protected human rights not recognized at federal level (for example Massachusetts being the first, of several, states to recognize same sex marriage.[13] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21ER Battery
[edit]Effect of international treaties
In the context of human rights and treaties which recognize or create individual rights, there are self-executing and non-self-executing treaties. Non-self-executing treaties, those which ascribe rights which under the Constitution may be assigned by law, Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J Battery

require legislative action to execute the contract (treaty) before it can become applicable to law.[14] There are also cases which explicitly require legislative approval according to the Constitution, such as cases which would potentially commit the U.S. to declare war or which require appropriation of funds. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21ZR

Treaties regarding human rights, which create a duty to refrain from acting in a particular manner or confer specific rights, are generally held to be self-executing, requiring no further legislative action. In cases where legislative bodies refuse to recognize otherwise self-executing treaties by declaring them to be non-self-executing in an act of legislative non-recognition, Sony VAIO VGN-FW3ZJ Battery
constitutional scholars argue that such acts violate the separation of powers in cases of controversy, the judiciary, not Congress, has the authority under Article III to apply treaty law to cases before the court. This is a key provision in cases where the Congress declares a human rights treaty to be non-self-executing, for example, Sony VAIO VGN-FW46M Battery
by contending it does not add anything to human rights under U.S. domestic law. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is one such case, which, while ratified after more than two decades of inaction, was done so with reservations, understandings, and declarations.[15] Sony VAIO VGN-FW4ZTJ/H


See also: Civil Rights Act of 1964 and African-American Civil Rights Movement


Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the first comprehensive legislation prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race and national origin in the workplace in a major industrialized country. Among the guests behind him is Martin Luther King, Jr. Sony VAIO VGN-FW51 Battery

The Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees that "the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."[16] In addition, Sony VAIO VGN-FW51MF/H Battery
Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the denial of a citizen of the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".Sony VAIO VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery
The United States was the first major industrialized country to enact comprehensive legislation prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race and national origin in the workplace in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA),[17Sony VGN-CS21S/P Battery

] while most of the world contains no such recourse for job discrimination.[18] The CRA is perhaps the most prominent civil rights legislation enacted in modern times, has served as a model for subsequent anti-discrimination laws and has greatly expanded civil rights protections in a wide variety of settings.[19] Sony VGN-CS21S/R Battery

Sony VGN-CS31Z/Q Battery The United States' 1991 provision of recourse for victims of such discrimination for punitive damages and full back pay has virtually no parallel in the legal systems of any other nation.[18] Sony VGN-CS21S/T Battery

In addition to individual civil recourse, the United States possesses anti-discrimination government enforcement bodies, such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, while only the United Kingdom and Ireland possess faintly analogous bureaucracies.[18] Beginning in 1965, Sony VGN-CS21S/V Battery

Sony VGN-CS31S/W Battery the United States also began a program of affirmative action which not only obliges employers not to discriminate, but also requires them to provide preferences for groups protected under the Civil Rights Act to increase their numbers where they are judged to be underrepresented.[20] Sony VGN-CS21S/W Battery

Such affirmative action programs are also applied in college admissions.[20] The United States also prohibits the imposition of any "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure .. Sony VGN-CS21Z/Q Battery
. to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color", which prevents the use of grandfather clauses, literacy tests, poll taxes and white primaries. Sony VGN-CS11S/P Battery


Abolitionist Anthony Benezet and others formed the first human rights nongovernmental organization in the U.S. This image was used as a symbol for their cause.[21][22]
Prior to the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, slavery was legal in some states of the United States until 1865.[23Sony VGN-CS11S/Q Battery
Influenced by the principles of the Religious Society of Friends, Anthony Benezet formed the Pennsylvania Abolition Society in 1775, Sony VGN-CS11S/W Battery
believing that all ethnic groups were considered equal and that human slavery was incompatible with Christian beliefs. Benezet extended the recognition of human rights to Native Americans and he argued for a peaceful solution to the violence between the Native and European Americans. Benjamin Franklin became the president of Benezet's abolition society in the late 18th century.
In addition, the Fourteenth Amendment was interpreted to permit what was termed Separate but equal treatment of minorities until the United States Supreme Court overturned this interpretation in 1954, Sony VGN-CS11Z/R Battery
which consequently overturned Jim Crow laws.[24][25] Native Americans did not have citizenship rights until the Dawes Act of 1887 and the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924. Sony VGN-CS11Z/T Battery

Following the 2008 presidential election, Barack Obama was sworn in as the first African-American president of the United States on January 20, 2009.[26] In his Inaugural Address, President Obama stated "A man whose father less than 60 years ago might not have been served at a local restaurant can now stand before you to take a most sacred oath.. Sony VGN-CS31S/P Battery
..So let us mark this day with remembrance, of who we are and how far we have traveled".[26]
See also: Women's suffrage in the United States


U.S. women suffragists demonstrating for the right to vote, February 1913
The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote because of that citizen's sex.[27] While this does not necessarily guarantee all women the right to vote, Sony VGN-CS31S/R Battery
as suffrage qualifications are determined by individual states, it does mean that states' suffrage qualifications may not prevent women from voting due to their gender.[27] Sony VGN-CS31S/T Battery
The United States was the first major industrialized country to enact comprehensive CRA legislation prohibiting discrimination on the basis of gender in the workplace[17] while most of the world contains no such recourse for job discrimination.[18] Sony VGN-CS31S/V Battery
The United States' 1991 provision of recourse for discrimination victims for punitive damages and full back pay has virtually no parallel in the legal systems of any other nation.[18] In addition to individual civil recourse, SONY VGN-FW41E/H BATTERY

the United States possesses anti-discrimination government enforcement bodies, such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, while only the United Kingdom and Ireland possess faintly analogous bureaucracies.[18] Beginning in 1965, the United States also began a program of affirmative action which not only obliges employers not to discriminate, SONY VGN-FW41J/H BATTERY

Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/T Battery but also requires them to provide preferences for groups protected under the CRA to increase their numbers where they are judged to be underrepresented.[20] Such affirmative action programs are also applied in college admissions.[20] SONY VGN-FW41M/H BATTERY

The United States was also the first country to legally define sexual harassment in the workplace.[28] Because sexual harassment is therefore a Civil Rights violation, individual legal rights of those harassed in the workplace are comparably stronger in the United States than in most European countries.[28][29] SONY VGN-FW41ZJ/H BATTERY
The Selective Service System does not require women to register for a possible military draft[30] and the United States military does not permit women to serve in some front-line combat units. Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF/S Battery

See also: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
The United States was the first country in the world to adopt sweeping antidiscrimination legislation for people with disabilities, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA).[31] The ADA reflected a dramatic shift toward the employment of persons with disabilities to enhance the labor force participation of qualified persons with disabilities and in reducing their dependence on government entitlement programs.[32] Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/T Battery

Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF/S Battery The ADA amends the CRA and permits plaintiffs to recover punitive damages.[33] The ADA has been instrumental in the evolution of disability discrimination law in many countries, and has had such an enormous impact on foreign law development that its international impact may be even larger than its domestic impact.[34]

Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/S Battery Although ADA Title I was found to be unconstitutional, the Supreme Court has extended the protection to people with Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).[35]
It is important to note that federal benefits such as Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) are often administratively viewed in the United States as being primarily or near-exclusively the entitlement only of impoverished U.S. people with disabilities, Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/S Battery
and not applicable to those with disabilities who make significantly above-poverty level income. This is proven in practice by the general fact that in the U.S., if a disabled person on SSI without significant employment income suddenly finds him or her self in a position of employment, with a salary or wage at or above the living wage threshold, Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W Battery
s/he will often discover that the benefits to which s/he was previously entitled have been withdrawn by the state-based or federal government, because supposedly the new job "invalidates" the need for this assistance. The U.S. is the only industrialized country in the world to have this particular approach to physical disability assistance programming. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/P Battery

[edit]Sexual orientation
See also: LGBT rights in the United States and Same-sex marriage in the United States


Same-sex marriage rally in Iowa
The Constitution of the United States explicitly recognizes certain individual rights. The 14th Amendment recognizes that some human rights may exist but are not yet recognized within constitutional law; for example, civil rights for people of color and disability rights were long unrecognized. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF/S Battery
There may exist additional gender-related civil rights that are presently not recognized by US law but it does not explicitly state any sexual orientation rights. Some states have recognized sexual orientation rights which are discussed below. Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/S Battery

The United States Federal Government does not have any substantial body of law relating to marriage; these laws have developed separately within each state. The Full faith and credit clause of the US Constitution ordinarily guarantees the recognition of a marriage performed in one state by another. However, Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/T Battery
the Congress passed the Defense of Marriage Act of 1996,[36] which affirmed that no state (or other political subdivision within the United States) need recognize a marriage between persons of the same sex, even if the marriage was concluded or recognized in another state and the Federal Government may not recognize same-sex or polygamous marriages for any purpose, even if concluded or recognized by one of the states. Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/T Battery The US Constitution denies the federal government any authority to limit state recognition of sexual orientation rights or protections. This federal law only limits the interstate recognition of individual state laws and does not limit state law in any way. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/P Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF/P Battery
[edit]State laws


At an anti-Proposition 8 rally in New York City a protester compares the discrimination blacks experienced with the state of gay rights. Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF/w Battery

Wisconsin was the first state to pass a law explicitly prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.[37] In 1996, Hawaii ruled same-sex marriage is a Hawaiian constitutional right. Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont, and New Hampshire are the only states that allow same-sex marriage. Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF/S Battery

Same-sex marriage rights were established by the California Supreme Court in 2008, and over 18,000 same-sex couples were married. In November 2008 voters passed Proposition 8, amending the state constitution to deny same-sex couples marriage rights which was upheld in a May 2009 decision which also allowed existing same-sex marriages to stand.[38][39] Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF Battery

Privacy is not explicitly stated in the United States Constitution. In the Griswold v. Connecticut case, the Supreme Court ruled that it is implied in the Constitution. In the Roe v. Wade case, the Supreme Court used privacy rights to overturn most laws against abortion in the United States. In the Cruzan v. Director, Sony VAIO VGN-NW31ZF/S Battery
Missouri Department of Health case, the Supreme Court held that the patient had a right of privacy to terminate medical treatment. In Gonzales v. Oregon, the Supreme Court held that the Federal Controlled Substances Act can not prohibit physician-assisted suicide allowed by the Oregon Death with Dignity Act. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF/S Battery 

The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of criminalizing oral and anal sex in the Bowers v. Hardwick 478 U.S. 186 (1986) decision; however, it overturned the decision in the Lawrence v. Texas 539 U.S. 558 (2003) case and established the protection to sexual privacy. Sony VAIO VGN-NS10E/S Battery

Sony VAIO VGN-NS12M/S Battery [edit]Accused
The United States maintains a presumption of innocence in legal procedures. The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution and Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution deals with the rights of criminal suspects. Later the protection was extended to civil cases as well[40] In the Gideon v. Sony VAIO VGN-NS10J/S Battery
Wainwright case, the Supreme Court requires that indigent criminal defendants who are unable to afford their own attorney be provided counsel at trial. Since the Miranda v. Arizona case, the United States requires police departments to inform arrested persons of their rights, which is later called Miranda warning and typically begins with "You have the right to remain silent." Sony VAIO VGN-NS10L/S Battery


[edit]Freedom of religion
Main article: Freedom of religion in the United States
The establishment clause of the first amendment prohibits the establishment of a national religion by Congress or the preference of one religion over another. The clause was used to limit school praying, beginning with Engel v. Sony VAIO VGN-NS11E/S Battery
Vitale, which ruled government-led prayer unconstitutional. Wallace v. Jaffree banned moments of silence allocated for praying. The Supreme Court also ruled clergy-led prayer at public high school graduations unconstitutional with Lee v. Weisman. Sony VAIO VGN-NS11ER/S Battery

The free exercise clause guarantees the free exercise of religion. The Supreme Court's Lemon v. Kurtzman decision established the "Lemon test" exception, which details the requirements for legislation concerning religion. The Employment Division v. Smith decision, the Supreme Court maintained a "neutral law of general applicability" Sony VAIO VGN-NS11J/S Battery
can be used to limit religion exercises. In the City of Boerne v. Flores decision, the Religious Freedom Restoration Act was struck down as exceeding congressional power; however, the decision's effect is limited by the Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal decision, which requires states to express compelling interest in prohibiting illegal drug use in religious practices. Sony VAIO VGN-NS11L/S Battery

[edit]Freedom of expression


The Four Freedoms are derived from the 1941 State of the Union Address by United States President Franklin Roosevelt delivered to the 77th United States Congress on January 6, 1941. The theme was incorporated into the Atlantic Charter, and it became part of the charter of the United Nations[41] and appears in the preamble of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. Sony VAIO VGN-NS11S/S Battery

Main articles: Freedom of speech in the United States and Censorship in the United States
The United States, like other liberal democracies, is supposed to be a constitutional republic based on founding documents that restrict the power of government to preserve the liberty of the people. The freedom of expression (including speech, media, and public assembly) is an important right and is given special protectionSony VAIO VGN-NS11SR/S Battery
as declared by the First amendment of the constitution. According to Supreme Court precedent, the federal and lower governments may not apply prior restraint to expression, with certain exceptions, such as national security and obscenity.[42Sony VAIO VGN-NS11Z/S Battery
There is no law punishing insults against the government, ethnic groups, or religious groups. Symbols of the government or its officials may be destroyed in protest, including the American flag. Legal limits on expression include: Sony VAIO VGN-NS11ZR/S Battery
Solicitation, fraud, specific threats of violence, or disclosure of classified information.
Advocating the overthrow of the U.S. government through speech or publication, or organizing political parties which advocate the overthrow of the U.S. government (the Smith Act).[43] Sony VAIO VGN-NS12S/S Battery

Civil offenses involving defamation, fraud, or workplace harassment
Copyright violations
Federal Communications Commission rules governing the use of broadcast media.
Crimes involving sexual obscenity in pornography and text only erotic stories.
Ordinances requiring mass demonstrations on public property to register in advance.
The use of free speech zones and protest free zones. Sony VAIO VGN-NS21M/P Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NS38M/W Battery
Military censorship of blogs written by military personnel claiming some include sensitive information ineligible for release. Some critics view military officials as trying to suppress dissent from troops in the field.[44][45] The US Constitution specifically limits the human rights of active duty members, and this constitutional authority is used to limit speech rights by members in this and in other ways. Sony VAIO VGN-NS21M/W Battery

Some laws remain controversial due to concerns that they infringe on freedom of expression. These include the Digital Millennium Copyright Act[46] and the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act.[47] Sony VAIO VGN-NS21S/S Battery

In two high profile cases, grand juries have decided that Time magazine reporter Matthew Cooper and New York Times reporter Judith Miller must reveal their sources in cases involving CIA leaks. Time magazine exhausted its legal appeals, and Mr. Cooper eventually agreed to testify. Miller was jailed for 85 days before cooperating. U.S. District Chief Judge Thomas F. Sony VAIO VGN-NS21S/W Battery
Hogan ruled that the First Amendment does not insulate Time magazine reporters from a requirement to testify before a criminal grand jury that's conducting the investigation into the possible illegal disclosure of classified information. Sony VAIO VGN-NS21Z/S Battery

Approximately 30,000 government employees and contractors are currently employed to monitor telephone calls and other communications.[48] Sony VAIO VGN-NS31M/P Battery

[edit]Right to peaceably assemble
Although Americans are supposed to enjoy the freedom to peacefully protest, protesters are sometimes mistreated, beaten, arrested, jailed or fired upon. Sony VAIO VGN-NS31M/S Battery

On February 19, 2011, Ray McGovern was dragged out of a speech by Hillary Clinton on Internet freedom, in which she said that people should be free to protest without fear of violence. McGovern, who was wearing a Veterans for Peace t-shirt, stood up during the speech and silently turned his back on Clinton. Sony VAIO VGN-NS31M/W Battery
He was then assaulted by undercover and uniformed police, roughed up, handcuffed and jailed. He suffered bruises and lacerations in the attack which required medical treatment.[49]
Protesters have also been arrested for protesting outside of designated “free speech zones”.[50] At the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City, over 1,700 protesters were arrested.[51] Sony VAIO VGN-NS31S/S Battery
On May 4, 1970, Ohio National Guardsmen opened fire on protesting students at Kent State University, killing four students. Investigators determined that 28 Guardsmen fired 61 to 67 shots. Sony VAIO VGN-NS38M/P Battery
The Justice Department concluded that the Guardsmen were not in danger and that their claim that they fired in self-defense was untrue. The nearest student was almost 100 yards away at the time of the shooting.[52]
On March 7, 1965, approximately 600 civil rights marchers were violently dispersed by state and local police near the Edmund Pettus Bridge outside of Selma, Alabama.[53] Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery
In June of 2009, the ACLU asked the Department of Defense to stop categorizing political protests as "low-level terrorism" in their training courses. [54]
During the fall of 2011, large numbers of protesters taking part in the "Occupy movement" in cities around the country were arrested on various charges during protests for economic and political reforms.[55] Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery

[edit]Freedom of movement
This section requires expansion.
Further information: Freedom of movement under United States law
As per 707(b) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1979,[56] United States passports are required to enter and exit the country, and as per the Passport Act of 1926 and Haig v. Agee, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

the Presidential administration may deny or revoke passports for foreign policy or national security reasons at any time. Perhaps the most notable example of enforcement of this ability was the 1948 denial of a passport to U.S. Representative Leo Isacson, who sought to go to Paris to attend a conference as an observer for the American Council for a Democratic Greece, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery
a Communist front organization, because of the group's role in opposing the Greek government in the Greek Civil War.[57][58]
The United States prevents U.S. citizens to travel to Cuba, citing national security reasons, as part of an embargo against Cuba that has been condemned as an illegal act by the United Nations General Assembly.[59] Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery
The current exception to the ban on travel to the island, permitted since April 2009, has been an easing of travel restrictions for Cuban-Americans visiting their relatives. Restrictions continue to remain in place for the rest of the American populace.[60] Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery

On June 30, 2010, the American Civil Liberties Union filed a lawsuit on behalf of ten people who are either U.S. citizens or legal residents of the U.S., challenging the constitutionality of the government's "no-fly" list. The plaintiffs have not been told why they are on the list. Five of the plaintiffs have been stranded abroad. It is estimated that the "no-fly" list contained about 8,000 names at the time of the lawsuit.[61] Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery

The Secretary of State can deny a passport to anyone imprisoned, on parole, or on supervised release for a conviction for international drug trafficking or sex tourism, or to anyone who is behind on their child support payments.[62]
The following case precedents are typically cited in defense of unencumbered travel within the United States: Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN Battery
"The use of the highway for the purpose of travel and transportation is not a mere privilege, but a common fundamental right of which the public and individuals cannot rightfully be deprived." Chicago Motor Coach v. Chicago, 337 Ill. 200; 169 N.E. 22 (1929). Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M Battery
"The right of the citizen to travel upon the public highways and to transport his property thereon, either by carriage or by automobile, is not a mere privilege which a city may prohibit or permit at will, but a common law right which he has under the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." Thompson v. Smith, Supreme Court of Virginia, 155 Va. 367; 154 S.E. 579; (1930).
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"Undoubtedly the right of locomotion, the right to move from one place to another according to inclination, is an attribute of personal liberty, and the right, ordinarily, of free transit from or through the territory of any State is a right secured by the 14th amendment and by other provisions of the Constitution." Schactman v. Dulles, 225 F.2d 938; Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NW20ZF Battery
96 U.S. App. D.C. 287 (1955).
"The right to travel is a well-established common right that does not owe its existence to the federal government. It is recognized by the courts as a natural right." Schactman v. Dulles 225 F.2d 938; 96 U.S. App. D.C. 287 (1955) at 941. Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Battery

"The right to travel is a part of the liberty of which the citizen cannot be deprived without due process of law under the Fifth Amendment." Kent v. Dulles, 357 US 116, 125 (1958).
[edit]Freedom of association
Further information: Freedom of association
Freedom of association is the right of individuals to come together in groups for political action or to pursue common interests. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery

Freedom of association in the U.S. is restricted by the Smith Act, which bans political parties which advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.[43]
Between 1956 and 1971, the FBI attempted to "expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize" radical groups through the COINTELPRO program.[63] Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery

In 2008, the Maryland State Police admitted that they had added the names of Iraq War protesters and death penalty opponents to a terrorist database. They also admitted that other "protest groups" were added to the terrorist database,
Sony VAIO VGN-NW26M Battery
but did not specify which groups. It was also discovered that undercover troopers used aliases to infiltrate organizational meetings, rallies and group e-mail lists. Police admitted there was "no evidence whatsoever of any involvement in violent crime" by those classified as terrorists.[64]
[edit]National security exceptions Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MR Battery

Further information: National Security Strategy of the United States
The United States government has declared martial law,[65] suspended (or claimed exceptions to) some rights on national security grounds, typically in wartime and conflicts such as the United States Civil War,[65][66] Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery

Cold War or the War against Terror.[66] 70,000 Americans of Japanese ancestry were legally interned during World War II under Executive Order 9066. In some instances the federal courts have allowed these exceptions, while in others the courts have decided that the national security interest was insufficient. Presidents Lincoln, Wilson, and F.D. Roosevelt ignored such judicial decisions.[66] Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery
[edit]Historical restrictions
Sedition laws have sometimes placed restrictions on freedom of expression. The Alien and Sedition Acts, passed by President John Adams during an undeclared naval conflict with France, allowed the government to punish "false" statements about the government and to deport "dangerous" immigrants. Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery
The Federalist Party used these acts to harass supporters of the Democratic-Republican Party. While Woodrow Wilson was president, another broad sedition law called the Sedition Act of 1918, was passed during World War I. Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery

It also caused the arrest and ten year sentencing of Socialist Party of America Presidential candidate Eugene V. Debs for speaking out against the atrocities of World War I, although he would later be released early by President Warren G. Harding. Countless others, labeled as "subverts" (especially the Wobblies), Sony VGP-BPS13 Batterty
Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery
were investigated by the Woodrow Wilson Administration.
Presidents have claimed the power to imprison summarily, under military jurisdiction, those suspected of being combatants for states or groups at war against the United States. Abraham Lincoln invoked this power in the American Civil War to imprison Maryland secessionists. In that case, the Supreme Court concluded that only Congress could suspend the writ of habeas corpus, and the government released the detainees. Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery
During World War II, the United States interned thousands of Japanese-Americans on alleged fears that Japan might use them as saboteurs. Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery

Human rights and Human rights in the USA

Posted January 31st, 2012 at 03:24pm

Human rights and Human rights in the USA

Human rights are "commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being."[1] Human rights are thus conceived as universal (applicable everywhere) and egalitarian (the same for everyone). These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery

in both national and international law.[2] The doctrine of human rights in international practice, within international law, global and regional institutions, in the policies of states and in the activities of non-governmental organizations, has been a cornerstone of public policy around the world. In The idea of human rights[3] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ER/S Battery
it says: "if the public discourse of peacetime global society can be said to have a common moral language, it is that of human rights." Despite this, the strong claims made by the doctrine of human rights continue to provoke considerable skepticism and debates about the content, nature and justifications of human rights to this day. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31J/S Battery
Indeed, the question of what is meant by a "right" is itself controversial and the subject of continued philosophical debate.[4]
Many of the basic ideas that animated the movement developed in the aftermath of the Second World War and the atrocities of The Holocaust, culminating in the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Paris by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. The ancient world did not possess the concept of universal human rights.[5] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31MR/S Battery
Ancient societies had "elaborate systems of duties... conceptions of justice, political legitimacy, and human flourishing that sought to realize human dignity, flourishing, or well-being entirely independent of human rights".[6] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31S/S Battery
The modern concept of human rights developed during the early Modern period, alongside the European secularization of Judeo-Christian ethics.[7] The true forerunner of human rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval Natural law tradition that became prominent during the Enlightenment with such philosophers as John Locke, Francis Hutcheson, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31SR/S Battery
and Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, and featured prominently in the political discourse of the American Revolution and the French Revolution.
From this foundation, the modern human rights arguments emerged over the latter half of the twentieth century. Gelling as social activism and political rhetoric in many nations put it high on the world agenda.[8] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/S Battery
“ All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. ”
Article 1 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)[9] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/T Battery

The modern sense of human rights can be traced to Renaissance Europe and the Protestant Reformation, alongside the disappearance of the feudal authoritarianism and religious conservativism that dominated the Middle Ages. Human rights were defined as a result of European scholars attempting to form a "secularized version of Judeo-Christian ethics".[7] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery

Although ideas of rights and liberty have existed in some form for much of human history, they do not resemble the modern conception of human rights. According to Jack Donnelly, in the ancient world, "traditional societies typically have had elaborate systems of duties... conceptions of justice, political legitimacy, Sony Vaio VGN-NR38E/S Battery
and human flourishing that sought to realize human dignity, flourishing, or well-being entirely independent of human rights. These institutions and practices are alternative to, rather than different formulations of, human rights".Sony Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Battery
[6] Some argue that modern concept of human rights originated with the establishment of the United Nations in 1945, while others see precedents in ancient codes such as the Code of Hammurabi, the Cyrus Cylinder, and the reforms of Ashoka.[5] Medieval charters of liberty such as the English Magna Carta were not charters of human rights, Sony Vaio VGN-NR38S/S Battery
let alone general charters of rights: they instead constituted a form of limited political and legal agreement to address specific political circumstances, in the case of Magna Carta later being mythologized in the course of early modern debates about rights.[10] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/S Battery

One of the oldest records of human rights is the statute of Kalisz (1264), giving privileges to the Jewish minority in the Kingdom of Poland such as protection from discrimination and hate speech.[11] The basis of most modern legal interpretations of human rights can be traced back to recent European history. The Twelve Articles (1525) are considered to be the first record of human rights in Europe. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/T Battery
They were part of the peasants' demands raised towards the Swabian League in the German Peasants' War in Germany. In Spain in 1542 Bartolom de Las Casas argued against Juan Gin s de Sep lveda in the famous Valladolid debate, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery Sep lveda mainted an Aristotelian view of humanity as divided into classes of different worth, while Las Casas argued in favor of equal rights to freedom of slavery for all humans regardless of race or religion. In Britain in 1683, Sony VAIO VGN-AR51M Battery
the English Bill of Rights (or "An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown") and the Scottish Claim of Right each made illegal a range of oppressive governmental actions. Sony VAIO VGN-AR61M Battery
Two major revolutions occurred during the 18th century, in the United States (1776) and in France (1789), leading to the adoption of the United States Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen respectively, both of which established certain legal rights. Additionally, Sony VAIO VGN-AR61S Battery

the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 encoded into law a number of fundamental civil rights and civil freedoms.


Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen approved by the National Assembly of France, August 26, 1789.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. Sony VAIO VGN-AR11S Battery
United States Declaration of Independence, 1776
These were followed by developments in philosophy of human rights by philosophers such as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill and G.W.F. Sony VAIO VGN-AR61E Battery

Hegel during the 18th and 19th centuries. The term human rights probably came into use some time between Paine's The Rights of Man and William Lloyd Garrison's 1831 writings in The Liberator, in which he stated that he was trying to enlist his readers in "the great cause of human rights".Sony VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Battery
In the 19th century, human rights became a central concern over the issue of slavery. A number of reformers, such as William Wilberforce in Britain, worked towards the abolition of slavery. This was achieved in the British Empire by the Slave Trade Act 1807 and the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. In the United States, all the northern states had abolished the institution of slavery between 1777 and 1804, Sony VAIO VGN-NR21J/S Battery

although southern states clung tightly to the "peculiar institution". Conflict and debates over the expansion of slavery to new territories constituted one of the reasons for the southern states' secession and the American Civil War. During the reconstruction period immediately following the war, several amendments to the United States Constitution were made. These included the 13th amendment, banning slavery, Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Battery
the 14th amendment, assuring full citizenship and civil rights to all people born in the United States, and the 15th amendment, guaranteeing African Americans the right to vote. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/T Battery
Many groups and movements have achieved profound social changes over the course of the 20th century in the name of human rights. In Europe and North America, labour unions brought about laws granting workers the right to strike, establishing minimum work conditions and forbidding or regulating child labor.
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The women's rights movement succeeded in gaining for many women the right to vote. National liberation movements in many countries succeeded in driving out colonial powers. One of the most influential was Mahatma Gandhi's movement to free his native India from British rule. Movements by long-oppressed racial and religious minorities succeeded in many parts of the world,
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among them the African American Civil Rights Movement, and more recent diverse identity politics movements, on behalf of women and minorities in the United States. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery
The establishment of the International Committee of the Red Cross, the 1864 Lieber Code and the first of the Geneva Conventions in 1864 laid the foundations of International humanitarian law, to be further developed following the two World Wars. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

The World Wars, and the huge losses of life and gross abuses of human rights that took place during them, were a driving force behind the development of modern human rights instruments.
Sony VGP-BPS9B Battery
The League of Nations was established in 1919 at the negotiations over the Treaty of Versailles following the end of World War I. The League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation and diplomacy, and improving global welfare. Sony Vaio VGN-CR31E/P Battery
Enshrined in its charter was a mandate to promote many of the rights later included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
At the 1945 Yalta Conference, the Allied Powers agreed to create a new body to supplant the League's role; this was to be the United Nations. The United Nations has played an important role in international human-rights law since its creation. Sony Vaio VGN-CR31E/L Battery
Following the World Wars, the United Nations and its members developed much of the discourse and the bodies of law that now make up international humanitarian law and international human rights law. Sony Vaio VGN-CR31Z/R Battery
Main article: Philosophy of human rights
The philosophy of human rights attempts to examine the underlying basis of the concept of human rights and critically looks at its content and justification. Several theoretical approaches have been advanced to explain how and why human rights have become a part of social expectations. Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery

One of the oldest Western philosophies of human rights is that they are a product of a natural law, stemming from different philosophical or religious grounds. Other theories hold that human rights codify moral behavior which is a human social product developed by a process of biological and social evolution (associated with Hume). Sony VGP-BPS9A Battery

Human rights are also described as a sociological pattern of rule setting (as in the sociological theory of law and the work of Weber). These approaches include the notion that individuals in a society accept rules from legitimate authority in exchange for security and economic advantage (as in Rawls) - a social contract. The two theories that dominate contemporary human rights discussion are the interest theory and the will theory. Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery
Interest theory argues that the principal function of human rights is to protect and promote certain essential human interests, while will theory attempts to establish the validity of human rights based on the unique human capacity for freedom.[12] Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery
The strong claims made by human rights to universality have led to persistent criticism. Philosophers who have criticized the concept of human rights include Jeremy Bentham, Edmund Burke,

Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery Friedrich Nietzsche and Karl Marx. Political philosophy professor Charles Blattberg argues that discussion of human rights, being abstract, demotivates people from upholding the values that rights are meant to affirm.[13] Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

[edit]Classification of human rights
Human rights can be classified and organized in a number of different ways, at an international level the most common categorisation of human rights has been to split them into civil and political rights, and economic, social and cultural rights. Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery

Civil and political rights are enshrined in articles 3 to 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Economic, social and cultural rights are enshrined in articles 22 to 28 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).

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The UDHR included both economic, social and cultural rights and civil and political rights because it was based on the principle that the different rights could only successfully exist in combination: Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery
The ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, as well as his social, economic and cultural rights. Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights, 1966 Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN Battery

This is held to be true because without civil and political rights the public cannot assert their economic, social and cultural rights. Similarly, without livelihoods and a working society, the public cannot assert or make use of civil or political rights (known as the full belly thesis). Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M Battery

The indivisibility and interdependence of all human rights has been confirmed by the 1993 Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action: Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Battery
All human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent and related. The international community must treat human rights globally in a fair and equal manner, on the same footing, and with the same emphasis. Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery

Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, World Conference on Human Rights, 1993
This statement was again endorsed at the 2005 World Summit in New York (paragraph 121).
Although accepted by the signatories to the UDHR, most do not in practice give equal weight to the different types of rights. Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/W Battery
Some Western cultures have often given priority to civil and political rights, sometimes at the expense of economic and social rights such as the right to work, to education, health and housing. Similarly the ex Soviet bloc countries and Asian countries have tended to give priority to economic, social and cultural rights, but have often failed to provide civil and political rights. Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/P Battery

Opponents of the indivisibility of human rights argue that economic, social and cultural rights are fundamentally different from civil and political rights and require completely different approaches. Economic, social and cultural rights are argued to be: Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/W Battery


positive, meaning that they require active provision of entitlements by the state (as opposed to the state being required only to prevent the breach of rights)
resource-intensive, meaning that they are expensive and difficult to provide
progressive, meaning that they will take significant time to implement . Sony Vaio VGN-CS11Z/R Battery

vague, meaning they cannot be quantitatively measured, and whether they are adequately provided or not is difficult to judge
Olivia Ball and Paul Gready argue that for both civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights, it is easy to find examples which do not fit into the above categorisation. Among several others, Sony Vaio VGN-CS11Z/T Battery
they highlight the fact that maintaining a judicial system, a fundamental requirement of the civil right to due process before the law and other rights relating to judicial process, is positive, resource-intensive, progressive and vague, while the social right to housing is precise, justiciable and can be a real 'legal' right.[14] Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/P Battery

[edit]Three generations
Another categorization, offered by Karel Vasak, is that there are three generations of human rights: first-generation civil and political rights (right to life and political participation), second-generation economic, social and cultural rights (right to subsistence) and third-generation solidarity rights (right to peace, Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/R Battery
right to clean environment). Out of these generations, the third generation is the most debated and lacks both legal and political recognition. This categorisation is at odds with the indivisibility of rights, as it implicitly states that some rights can exist without others. Sony Vaio VGN-CS21Z/Q Battery
Prioritisation of rights for pragmatic reasons is however a widely accepted necessity. Human rights expert Philip Alston argues:
If every possible human rights element is deemed to be essential or necessary, then nothing will be treated as though it is truly important.[15] Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/R Battery

He, and others, urge caution with prioritisation of rights:
[T]he call for prioritizing is not to suggest that any obvious violations of rights can be ignored.
Philip Alston[15] Sony Vaio VGN-AW21M/H Battery

Priorities, where necessary, should adhere to core concepts (such as reasonable attempts at progressive realization) and principles (such as non-discrimination, equality and participation.
Olivia Ball, Paul Gready[16] Sony Vaio VGN-AW21S/B Battery
Some human rights are said to be "inalienable rights". The term inalienable rights (or unalienable rights) refers to "a set of human rights that are fundamental, are not awarded by human power, and cannot be surrendered." Sony Vaio VGN-AW21Z/B Battery
[edit]International protection

Main article: International human rights law
In the aftermath of the atrocities of World War II there was increased concern in the social and legal protection of human rights as fundamental freedoms. The foundation of the United Nations and the provisions of the United Nations Charter would provide a basis for a comprehensive system of international law and practise for the protection of human rights. Sony Vaio VGN-AW31ZS/B Battery
The term "international human rights law" is often used as a category of reference to describe these systems, but this can be a source of confusion as there is no separate entity as "international human rights law" but an interlocking system of non-binding conventions, international treaties, domestic law, international organisations and political bodies .[17] Sony Vaio VGN-AW31ZJ/B Battery

[edit]United Nations Charter
Main article: United Nations Charter
The provisions of the United Nations Charter provided a basis for the development of international human rights protection.[17] Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/W Battery

The preamble of the charter provides that the members "reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the equal rights of men and women" and Article 1(3) of the United Nations charter states that one of the purposes of the UN is: "to achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/T Battery
cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion".[18] Article 55 provides that: Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/P Battery

The United Nations shall promote: a) higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development; b) solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems; c) international cultural and educational cooperation; d)universal respect for, and observance of, Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/V Battery
human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.
Of particular importance is Article 56 of the charter:"All Members pledge themselves to take joint and separate action in co-operation with the Organization for the achievement of the purposes set forth in Article 55." Sony Vaio VGN-CS31Z/Q Battery
This is a binding treaty provision applicable to both the Organisation and its members and has been taken to constitute a legal obligation for the members of the United Nations.[17] Overall, the references to human rights in the Charter are general and vague. The Charter does not contain specific legal rights, Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/W Battery
nor does it mandate any enforcement procedures to protect these rights.[19] Despite this, the significance of the espousal of human rights within the UN charter must not be understated. The importance of human rights on the global stage can be traced to the importance of human rights within the United Nations framework and the UN Charter can be seen as the starting point for the development of a broad array of declarations, Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/T Battery treaties, implementation and enforcement mechanisms, UN organs, committees and reports on the protection of human rights.[19] The rights espoused in the UN charter would be codified and defined in the International Bill of Human Rights, composing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21MF Battery

[edit]Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Main article: Universal Declaration of Human Rights


"It is not a treaty...[In the future, it] may well become the international Magna Carta."[20] Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish text of the Universal Declaration in 1949. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21EF Battery

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly[9] in 1948, partly in response to the atrocities of World War II. Although the UDHR was a non-binding resolution, it is now considered by some to have acquired the force of international customary law which may be invoked in appropriate circumstances by national and other judiciaries.[21] Sony Vaio VGN-NW21JF Battery
The UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human, civil, economic and social rights, asserting these rights as part of the "foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world." The declaration was the first international legal effort to limit the behaviour of states and press upon them duties to their citizens following the model of the rights-duty duality. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21ZF Battery

...recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.
Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948
The UDHR was framed by members of the Human Rights Commission, with former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt as Chair, who began to discuss an International Bill of Rights in 1947. The members of the Commission did not immediately agree on the form of such a bill of rights,

Sony Vaio VGN-BZ31XT Battery and whether, or how, it should be enforced. The Commission proceeded to frame the UDHR and accompanying treaties, but the UDHR quickly became the priority.[22] Canadian law professor John Humphrey and French lawyer Ren Cassin were responsible for much of the cross-national research and the structure of the document respectively, Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery
where the articles of the declaration were interpretative of the general principle of the preamble. The document was structured by Cassin to include the basic principles of dignity, liberty, equality and brotherhood in the first two articles, followed successively by rights pertaining to individuals; Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/T Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/Q Battery
rights of individuals in relation to each other and to groups; spiritual, public and political rights; and economic, social and cultural rights. The final three articles place, according to Cassin, rights in the context of limits, duties and the social and political order in which they are to be realized.[22] Sony Vaio VGN-NS38E/S Battery
Humphrey and Cassin intended the rights in the UDHR to be legally enforceable through some means, as is reflected in the third clause of the preamble:[22]
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law. Sony Vaio VGN-NS12M/S Battery
Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948
Some of the UDHR was researched and written by a committee of international experts on human rights, including representatives from all continents and all major religions, and drawing on consultation with leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi.[23][24] The inclusion of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights[22][25] Sony Vaio VGN-NS12M/W Battery

was predicated on the assumption that all human rights are indivisible and that the different types of rights listed are inextricably linked. This principle was not then opposed by any member states (the declaration was adopted unanimously, Sony Vaio VGN-NS36E Battery
Byelorussian SSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Ukrainian SSR, Union of South Africa, USSR, Yugoslavia.); however, this principle was later subject to significant challenges.[25]
The Universal Declaration was bifurcated into treaties, a Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and another on social, economic, and cultural rights, Sony Vaio VGN-BZ11EN Battery
due to questions about the relevance and propriety of economic and social provisions in covenants on human rights. Both covenants begin with the right of people to self-determination and to sovereignty over their natural resources.[26] This debate over whether human rights are more fundamental than economic rights has continued to the present day. Sony Vaio VGN-BZ11XN Battery

The drafters of the Covenants initially intended only one instrument. The original drafts included only political and civil rights, but economic and social rights were also proposed. The disagreement over which rights were basic human rights resulted in there being two covenants. Sony Vaio VGN-BZ12EN Battery
The debate was whether economic and social rights are aspirational, as contrasted with basic human rights which all people possess purely by being human, because economic and social rights depend on wealth and the availability of resources. In addition, which social and economic rights should be recognised depends on ideology or economic theories, Sony Vaio VGN-BZ12XN Battery
in contrast to basic human rights, which are defined purely by the nature (mental and physical abilities) of human beings. It was debated whether economic rights were appropriate subjects for binding obligations and whether the lack of consensus over such rights would dilute the strength of political-civil rights. Sony Vaio VGN-BZ12XN Battery
There was wide agreement and clear recognition that the means required to enforce or induce compliance with socio-economic undertakings were different from the means required for civil-political rights.[27] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ21VN Battery

This debate and the desire for the greatest number of signatories to human-rights law led to the two covenants. The Soviet bloc and a number of developing countries had argued for the inclusion of all rights in a so-called Unity Resolution. Both covenants allowed states to derogate some rights.[citation needed] Those in favor of a single treaty could not gain sufficient consensus.[28][29] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ21XN Battery
[edit]International treaties
In 1966, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) were adopted by the United Nations, Sony Vaio VGN-BZ31VT Battery
between them making the rights contained in the UDHR binding on all states that have signed this treaty, creating human-rights law.
Since then numerous other treaties (pieces of legislation) have been offered at the international level. They are generally known as human rights instruments. Some of the most significant, referred to (with ICCPR and ICESCR) as "the seven core treaties", are: Sony Vaio VPC-CW1S1E/B Battery

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) (adopted 1966, entry into force: 1969)
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (adopted 1979, entry into force: 1981)
United Nations Convention Against Torture (CAT) (adopted 1984, entry into force: 1984)
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (adopted 1989, entry into force: 1989)

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Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) (adopted 2006, entry into force: 2008)
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (ICRMW or more often MWC) (adopted 1990, entry into force: 2003). Sony Vaio VPC-CW1S1E/L Battery

[edit]Customary international law
Main article: Customary international law
In addition to protection by international treaties, customary international law may protect some human rights, such as the prohibition of torture, genocide and slavery and the principle of non-discrimination.[30] Sony Vaio VPC-CW1S1E/R Battery

[edit]International humanitarian law
Main articles: Geneva Conventions and International humanitarian law
The Geneva Conventions came into being between 1864 and 1949 as a result of efforts by Henry Dunant, the founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross. The conventions safeguard the human rights of individuals involved in armed conflict, and build on the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Sony Vaio VPC-CW1S1E/W Battery
the international community's first attempt to formalize the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international law. The conventions were revised as a result of World War II and readopted by the international community in 1949. Sony Vaio VGN-NS38E/S Battery
[edit]United Nations system


Structure of the United Nations Human Rights Bodies and Mechanisms
Main article: United Nations
Under the mandate of the UN charter, the and the multilateral UN human rights treaties, the United Nations (UN) as an intergovernmental body seeks to apply international jurisdiction for universal human-rights legislation.[31] Sony Vaio VGN-NS38M/W Battery

Within the UN machinery, human-rights issues are primarily the concern of the United Nations Security Council and the United Nations Human Rights Council, and there are numerous committees within the UN with responsibilities for safeguarding different human-rights treaties. Sony Vaio VGN-AW11S/B Battery
The most senior body of the UN in the sphere of human rights is the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The United Nations has an international mandate to: Sony Vaio VGN-AW11XY/Q Battery

achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, gender, language, or religion.
Article 1-3 of the United Nations Charter. Sony Vaio VGN-AW21XY/Q Battery
[edit]Political bodies
[edit]Security Council
Main article: United Nations Security Council
The United Nations Security Council has the primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security and is the only body of the UN that can authorize the use of force. It has been criticised for failing to take action to prevent human rights abuses, Sony Vaio VGN-AW31XY/Q Battery

including the Darfur crisis, the Srebrenica massacre and the Rwandan Genocide.[32] For example, critics blamed the presence of non-democracies on the Security Council for its failure regarding.[33] Sony Vaio VGN-NS10E/S Battery

On April 28, 2006 the Security Council adopted resolution 1674 that reaffirmed the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity" and committed the Security Council to action to protect civilians in armed conflict.[34]
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[edit]General Assembly


The UN General Assembly
Main article: UN General Assembly
The United Nations General Assembly, under Article 13 of the UN Charter, has the power to initiate studies and make recommendations on human rights issues.[35] Under this provision, the general assembly passed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, and since then a wide variety of other human rights instruments.[35] Sony Vaio VGN-NS10L/S Battery

The assembly has several subsidiary organs that deal with specific human rights issues, such as the Special Committee on Decolonisation and the Special Commission against Apartheid (no longer operational). In addition the general assembly has set up a number of subsidiary organs that consider human rights issues in a number of high-profile contexts: Sony Vaio VGN-NS11J/S Battery
such as the UN Council on Namibia, the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practises in the Occupied territories and the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable rights of the Palestine People.[36] Sony Vaio VGN-NS20E/P Battery
[edit]Human Rights Council


Council logo
Main article: United Nations Human Rights Council
The United Nations Human Rights Council, created at the 2005 World Summit to replace the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, has a mandate to investigate violations of human rights.[37] Sony Vaio VGN-NS20J/P Battery
The Human Rights Council is a subsidiary body of the General Assembly[38] and reports directly to it. It ranks below the Security Council, which is the final authority for the interpretation of the United Nations Charter.[39] Forty-seven of the one hundred ninety-one member states sit on the council, elected by simple majority in a secret ballot of the United Nations General Assembly. Sony Vaio VGN-NS30Z/S Battery

Members serve a maximum of six years and may have their membership suspended for gross human rights abuses. The Council is based in Geneva, and meets three times a year; with additional meetings to respond to urgent situations.[40] Sony Vaio VGN-NS20EF/P Battery
Independent experts (rapporteurs) are retained by the Council to investigate alleged human rights abuses and to provide the Council with reports. Sony Vaio VGN-NS20EF/S Battery
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The Human Rights Council may request that the Security Council take action when human rights violations occur. This action may be direct actions, may involve sanctions, and the Security Council may also refer cases to the International Criminal Court (ICC) even if the issue being referred is outside the normal jurisdiction of the ICC.[41] Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

[edit]Treaty bodies
In addition to the political bodies whose mandate flows from the UN charter, the UN has set up a number of treaty-based bodies, comprising committees of independent experts who monitor compliance with human rights standards and norms flowing from the core international human rights treaties. Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13A/B Battery
They are supported by and are created by the treaty that they monitor, With the exception of theCESCR, which was established under a resolution of the Economic and Social Council to carry out the monitoring functions originally assigned to that body under the Covenant, they are technically autonomous bodies, Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/B Battery
established by the treaties that they monitor and accountable to the state parties of those treaties - rather than subsidiary to the United Nations. Though in practise they are closely intertwined with the United Nations system and are supported by the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) and the UN Center for Human Rights.[42] Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13/S Battery

The Human Rights Committee promotes participation with the standards of the ICCPR. The eighteen members of the committee express opinions on member countries and make judgments on individual complaints against countries which have ratified an Optional Protocol to the treaty. The judgments, termed "views", are not legally binding. Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights monitors the ICESCR and makes general comments on ratifying countries performance. It will have the power to receive complaints against the countries that opted into the Optional Protocol once it has come into force.

Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery It is important to note that unlike the other treaty bodies, the economic committee is not an autonomous body responsible to the treaty parties, but directly responsible to the Economic and Social Council and ultimately to the General Assembly. This means that the Economic Committee faces particular difficulties at its disposal only relatively "weak" means of implementation in comparison to other treaty bodies.[43] Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/S Battery
Particular difficulties noted by commentators include: perceived vagueness of the principles of the treaty, relative lack of legal texts and decisions, ambivalence of many states in addressing economic, social and cultural rights, comparatively few non-governmental organisations focused on the area and problems with obtaining relevant and precise information.[43][44] Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13/Q Battery

The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination monitors the CERD and conducts regular reviews of countries' performance. It can make judgments on complaints against member states allowing it, Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery but these are not legally binding. It issues warnings to attempt to prevent serious contraventions of the convention. Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery
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The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women monitors the CEDAW. It receives states' reports on their performance and comments on them, and can make judgments on complaints against countries which have opted into the 1999 Optional Protocol. Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery

The Committee Against Torture monitors the CAT and receives states' reports on their performance every four years and comments on them. Its subcommittee may visit and inspect countries which have opted into the Optional Protocol. Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery

The Committee on the Rights of the Child monitors the CRC and makes comments on reports submitted by states every five years. It does not have the power to receive complaints. Sony VGP-BPS21A/b Battery
The Committee on Migrant Workers was established in 2004 and monitors the ICRMW and makes comments on reports submitted by states every five years. It will have the power to receive complaints of specific violations only once ten member states allow it. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21MF Battery

The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was established in 2008 to monitor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. It has the power to receive complaints against the countries which have opted into the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21EF Battery

Each treaty body receives secretariat support from the Human Rights Council and Treaties Division of Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights (OHCHR) in Geneva except CEDAW, which is supported by the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW). Sony Vaio VGN-NW21JF Battery
CEDAW formerly held all its sessions at United Nations headquarters in New York but now frequently meets at the United Nations Office in Geneva; the other treaty bodies meet in Geneva. The Human Rights Committee usually holds its March session in New York City. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21ZF Battery

[edit]Regional human rights regimes
Main article: Regional human rights regimes
International human rights regime's are in several cases "nested" within more comprehensive and overlapping regional agreements. These regional regimes can be seen as relatively independently coherent human rights sub-regimes.[45] Sony Vaio VGN-NW31ZF/S Battery
Three principle regional human rights instruments can be identified, the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, the American Convention on Human Rights (the Americas) and the European Convention on Human Rights. The European Convention on Human Rights has since 1950 defined and guaranteed human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe.[46] Sony Vaio VGN-NW31JF Battery
All 47 member states of the Council of Europe have signed the Convention and are therefore under the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg.[46]
See also: List of human rights articles by country and National human rights institutions
[edit]Non-governmental actors
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Brazil and S o Paulo 3

Posted January 30th, 2012 at 04:03pm

  • Sales of luxury goods in Brazil amounted to 8.9 billion dollars in 2010, according to GfK Brazil, of which 70% of luxury goods are sold in S o Paulo City and 95% of sales in the city are represented by 'luxury quadrilateral'. The Cidade Jardim mall, is a high-end mall, in Jardim Panorama, Morumbi district, with restaurants, cinemas, Sony VAIO VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery
  • and boutiques, including Carolina Herrera, Chanel, Ermenegildo Zegna, Giorgio Armani, Herm s, Longchamp, Montblanc, Rolex, Salvatore Ferragamo, Tiffany & Co., Prada, Sony VAIO VGN-FW46M Battery
  • Louis Vuitton, Jimmy Choo, Emilio Pucci, Alexandre de Paris, Canali, La Martina and Daslu department store. Fendi, Christian Louboutin, Sony VAIO VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery
  • Balmain, Dolce & Gabbana, Tod's, the Argentinian brand Etiqueta Negra, the English Issa London, the French Twins for Peace, flagships of Dior, Gucci, Cartier and the new store of Chanel, a flagship store, will be installed at the mall in 2012. Sony VAIO VGN-FW51MF/H Battery
  • Louis Vuitton will have a new store, a global store with 1,400 square metres (15,000 sq ft). According to the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo, the store will be one of six major brand stores. Sony VAIO VGN-FW56M Battery

The Iguatemi Faria Lima, in Faria Lima Avenue, is the Brazil's oldest mall, opened in 1966. It is considered the 11th most expensive shopping area in the world, according to Cushman & Wakefield. Among the more than 30 international luxury brands are Burberry, Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J Battery
mporio Armani, Hugo Boss, Chanel, Bang & Olufsen, Bvlgari, D&G, Diane von F rstenberg, Gucci, Missoni, M Missoni, Kate Spade, Marc Jacobs, Bottega Veneta, Christian Louboutin, Salvatore Ferragamo, Louis Vuitton, Ermenegildo Zegna, Max Mara, Tiffany & Co. and Swarovski. The Oscar de la Renta, Longchamp, Tod's and TopShop will be installed at the mall in 2012. Sony VAIO VGN-AW11M/H Battery

In Vila Ol mpia neighborhood, is the Villa Daslu departament store. With 20 thousand square meters sells about 330 national and international luxury brands, as Valentino, Ermenegildo Zegna, Gucci, Dolce & Gabbana, Blumarine, Oscar de la Renta, Sony VAIO VGN-AW11S/B Battery
Givenchy, Balmain, Manolo Blahnik, Chlo , Missoni, Moschino, Alexander McQueen, Karl Lagerfeld, BCBG Max Azria, DKNY, Paul Smith, Louis Vuitton, Tom Ford, Goyard, Sergio Rossi and Salvatore Ferragamo. In the surrounding area, is being built a future high-end mall JK Iguatemi, which will have brands such as Versace, Sony VAIO VGN-AW11XU/Q Battery
alenciaga, Nicole Miller, Gucci, Chanel, Ermenegildo Zegna, Longchamp, Tod's, Yves Saint Laurent, TopShop/TopMan, Burberry, Lanvin, Miu Miu, Diane von F rstenberg, Goyard, Polo Ralph Lauren, Juicy Couture, Kate Spade, Bottega Veneta, Carolina Herrera, Coach, Inc., Dolce&Gabbana, Sephora, Tory Burch, Van Cleef & Arpels, Rimowa, Sony VAIO VGN-AW21S/B Battery

Sony VAIO VGN-AW31ZJ/B Battery aula Cahen D'Anvers, Vicomte A. and Daslu.
The Jardins neighborhood, is one of the most sophisticated area of the city, where upscale restaurants and hotels are located. The New York Times has compared Oscar Freire street to Rodeo Drive.[79] Sony VAIO VGN-AW21S/B Battery

In Jardins are Ferrari, Aston Martin, Bentley, BMW, Bugatti, Maserati, Lamborghini, Jaguar, Volvo, Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, Pagani, Land Rover and Audi dealerships; hotels as Tivoli, Porto Bay, Fasano, Emiliano, Renaissance and Unique; and one of the best restaurants in the world as D.O.MSony VAIO VGN-AW21XY/Q Battery
and Fasano. In the Oscar Freire street and nearby streets as Haddock Lobo and Bela Cintra are the best brands of the Brazil and the world, include Bang & Olufsen, Calvin Klein, Cartier, Dior, Emporio Armani, Ermenegildo Zegna, Giorgio Armani, Louis Vuitton, Marc Jacobs, Marina Rinaldi, Max Mara, Montblanc, Roberto Cavalli, Salvatore Ferragamo, Tommy Hilfiger, Christofle and Versace. Sony VAIO VGN-AW21Z/B Battery

Outside the 'luxury quadrilateral', is the Brooklin CBD. In this neighborhood some of the city's upscale hotels are located, such as the Hilton Hotel, Sheraton Hotels and Hyatt, as other exclusive mall, the Morumbi Shopping. Other regions of the city also have luxury trade as Jardim An lia Franco (East Zone), Higien polis (Central Zone), Sony VAIO VGN-AW31S/B Battery
Alto de Santana (North Zone), Alto de Pinheiros (West Zone), Moema/Vila Nova Concei o (South Zone) and Alphaville (Barueri municipality, Greater S o Paulo). Sony VAIO VGN-AW31XY/Q Battery
Luxury homes in the upscale neighborhood of S o Paulo.
S o Paulo has a history of actions, projects and plans related to urban planning and urban planning that can be traced to the government of Antonio da Silva Prado, Baron Duprat, Washington and completed by Luis Francisco Prestes Maia.
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However, in general, the city was formed during the twentieth century, going from village to metropolis, through a series of informal processes and irregular urban sprawl. Sony Vaio VPCEB1S1E/WI Battery

Thus, S o Paulo differs considerably from other Brazilian cities like Belo Horizonte and Goi nia, whose initial expansion followed determinations by a plan and a unique urban project, or a city like Bras lia, whose master plan had been fully designed prior to construction of the city. Sony Vaio VPCEB1S1E/BJ Battery

Moreover, the succession of peripheral settlements and the processes of rehabilitation and reconstruction of tissues already present, common in the city throughout its evolution, was possibly accompanied by urban plans that tried to sort the second planning guidelines informal logic of the constitution itself city. Sony Vaio VPCEB1M1E/WI Battery

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If the first interventions Prado punctual and Theodore had such plans sought, either sectorally integrated and sometimes isolated, setting standards to be followed in the production of new urban spaces and regulation of the above. Sony Vaio VPCEB1M1E/T Battery
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The historical effectiveness of such plans to comply with what they apparently were proposed, however, has been attributed by some planners and historians as diverse as questionable. Sony Vaio VPCEA3S1E/W Battery
On the other hand, some of these same scholars argue that such plans were produced exclusively for the benefit of the wealthier strata of the population while the working classes would be relegated to the traditional informal processes. Sony Vaio VPCEA3S1E/V Battery

In S o Paulo until the mid-1950s, the plans submitted to the city even had a character Haussmann, or were based on the idea of "demolish and rebuild." May be cited as the plans submitted by former Mayor Prestes Maia S o Paulo for the roads (known as the Avenues Plan) or by Saturnino de Brito for the Tiet River. Sony Vaio VPCEA3S1E/P Battery

In 1968 the Urban Development Plan is proposed that would unfold in the Basic Plan for Integrated Development of S o Paulo, developed during the administration of Figueiredo Ferraz. The main result has been what has become known as zoning laws and lasted until 2004 when he was replaced by current Master Plan. Sony Vaio VPCEA3S1E/L Battery

That zoning, adopted in 1972, we noted a clear protection calls Z1 (definition of areas whose use was residential and was designed exclusively for the elite of the city) and a certain vagueness of most of the city, Sony Vaio VPCEA3S1E/G Battery
Sony Vaio VPCEA3S1E/B Battery lassified as Z3 (loosely regulated as "mixed zone" but without clearer definitions about their characteristics). Thus, such zoning encouraged the growth of suburbs equipped for building low feedback processes coupled with speculation while valued regions in which it is allowed to build tall buildings. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery

S o Paulo Art Biennial. The second oldest art biennial in the world after the Venice Biennial.
The city of S o Paulo hosts approximately 90 thousand events every year, featuring arts, business, fashion and beyond. There are some Web sites and magazines specialising in the cultural events in the city, including the Agenda Cultural de S o Paulo (S o Paulo's Cultural Calendar).[80] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery

S o Paulo Pancake Cook-Off
The S o Paulo Pancake Cook-Off is a popular cooking festival held annually in the city center. Thousands of amateur chefs from throughout Brazil migrate to the city every summer to compete with other chefs to see who has made the finest S o Paulo Pancake. HP Pavilion DV6-1211AX Battery
he most recent winner of 2011 was a certain Felipe Ramos, a Portugese National from the Isle of Madeira with his curry-flavored "Pestana Palms" Pancake. HP Pavilion DV4-1125BR Battery
S o Paulo Art Bienal
The S o Paulo Art Biennial is a cultural event hosted in town every two years. Almost 1 million people visited the 26th Biennial in 2004. Its theme was chosen to enable a wide range of artistic positions to feel comfortable. HP Pavilion DV6-1223EO Battery

In addition, to an intensification of the North-South dialogue inside Brazil, the Bienal's aims include the promoting of links between non-European cultures along a South-South orientation.[81] HP Pavilion DV6-1220EO Battery

S o Paulo Fashion Week


Daiane Conterato at S o Paulo Fashion Week.
S o Paulo Fashion Week, established in 1996 under the name Morumbi Fashion Brasil, is the largest and most important fashion event in Latin America. HP Pavilion DV5-1015ED Battery

Brazil first entered the international fashion circuit with the increasing reputation of famous Brazilian top models such as Isabeli Fontana, Adriana Lima, Gisele B ndchen, Alessandra Ambrosio, Fernanda Tavares, Ana Beatriz Barros, HP Pavilion DV6-3013SL Battery
Izabel Goulart, Brenda Costa, Ana Hickmann, and Evandro Soldati, and the "discovery" of some fresh talents such as Alexandre Herchcovitch by some international fashion magazines. HP Pavilion DV6-1230SB Battery

S o Paulo Gay Pride Parade
Main article: LGBT rights in Brazil
Main article: S o Paulo Gay Pride Parade


S o Paulo Gay Pride Parade.
The first S o Paulo Gay Pride Parade took place in 1987, and attracted a crowd, then impressive, of 20,000 people, but since then the event grows in participation, size and significance. The event is a tourist draw for the city, HP Pavilion DV6-1215SA Battery
ttracting larger and larger numbers of people, reaching around 2 million visitors in the last estimated official number available, from the 2008 parade. It is opened by the city's mayor, running along the Paulista Avenue, HP Pavilion DV5-1005EL Battery
ccompanied by several Trio El tricos. The last parade, held on June 6, 2010, attracted about 3.5 million people according to official numbers, given by the Pol cia Militar.[82][83] HP Pavilion DV5-1121EM Battery
The Parade is an annual event, taking place in June, which aims to increase the visibility and social awareness of the community, as well as agitating against discrimination and in favor of positive legislation for homosexuals, HP Pavilion DV5-1015EA Battery bisexuals, transvestites and transsexuals. Since 2002, the Parade has also become associated with a wider long cultural program, lasting at least a month. Dell Studio 17 Battery

March for Jesus
The March for Jesus is an Evangelical parade that takes place on Corpus Christi Thursday every year in Zona Norte, or North Side. It is organized by Renascer em Cristo Church, a Neo-Pentecostal denomination created in the 1980s which has grown significantly in the first decade of the 21st century. In 2006, Dell Studio 1735 Battery
more than 2 million people took part in the event, according to official estimates.[84] Evangelicals from across Brazil go to S o Paulo on the holiday in June for the march, as live Christian bands lead the way. The annual march, Dell Studio 1737 Battery

Dell Inspiron XPS M1710 Battery ganized by evangelical churches, features concerts with 30 Christian bands carried on 17 flatbed trucks performing live as participants march through Brazil's financial capital. Dell Studio 15 Battery

International Transport Industry Show
The Sal o Internacional da Ind stria do Transporte (FENATRAN) is held in S o Paulo in the Park Anhembi, every two years and usually in October.[85] It is a major event presenting new trends for the industry related to transport, such as truck manufacturers, components for vehicles, fuel, motors and services for the industry, such as financial and insurance companies. Dell Studio 1537 Battery
International Film Festival
The S o Paulo International Film Festival is a film festival held annually in S o Paulo, Brazil since 1976. It is one of the most important Brazilian film festival along with Rio Film Festival and Bras lia National Film Festival. Dell Studio 1536 Battery
Electronic Language International Festival


Electronic Language International Festival.
The Electronic Language International Festival is a non-profit cultural organization, whose purpose is to disseminate and to develop arts, technologies and scientific research, by means of exhibitions, debates, lectures, and courses. Dell Studio 1555 Battery
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The festival promotes a yearly meeting in Brazil, in the city of S o Paulo.[86]
Festival of Electronic Art
Every two years, Associa o Cultural Videobrasil's International Electronic Art Festival brings works by artists from all over the world to S o Paulo. In keeping with the constant transformations in media and support, Dell Latitude D830 Battery
he curatorship has added installations, performances, VJs, CD-ROM art, and Internet art to the programme. Art shows, debates and meetings introduce new ideas and artwork, setting new guidelines for contemporary art in Brazil.
Dell Inspiron XPS M170 Battery Exhibitions featuring work by prominent electronic artists are also part of the Festival. Brazilian pioneers such as Rafael Fran a and Olhar Eletr nico, and international guests such as Nam June Paik, Bill Viola and Gary Hill, have featured in the event's past editions. Each edition has a theme of its own.[87]
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Main article: Brazilian Carnival
The Carnival of S o Paulo is a traditional celebration carnival held every year in S o Paulo. The parade of samba schools in S o Paulo is the Anhembi Sambadrome, designed by renowned architect Oscar Niemeyer,
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ho also designed the Sambadrome of the sambodrome in Rio de Janeiro. The Special Group parade of samba schools of S o Paulo happens on Friday and Saturday of carnival week, schools that participated in the carnival in 2012.
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Samba Schools: Unidos de Vila Maria; Rosas de Ouro; X9; Vai Vai; guia de Ouro; Camisa Verde e Branco; Imp rio de Casa Verde; Drag es da Real; Acad micos do Tucuruvi; Gavi es da Fiel; Mancha Verde; Tom Maior; P rola Negra; Mocidade Alegre.
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Virada Cultural
Virada Cultural is an annual event held since 2005 by the Municipality of S o Paulo, promoting 24 hours of non-stop cultural activities held during the month of May, every year, always starting on a Saturday night and ending on a Sunday afternoon.
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he event was inspired by the annual event named Nuit Blanche in Paris, with many cultural entertainment events throughout the night. The activities include music shows, dance shows, classical & orchestra presentations, theater plays,
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cinema, poetry, anime/comics fans meetings and acrobatic performances. The event takes place in several parts of the downtown area, as well as some cultural centers, clubs and selected schools. In 2010, according to S o Paulo Municipality, the event attracted around 4 million people.
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S o Paulo has a quite well developed system of primary and secondary, both public and private, and a variety of vocational-technical schools. More than nine-tenths of the population is literate, and roughly the same proportion of those age 7 to 14 are enrolled in school. Dell Latitude E5420M Battery
Among the many institutions of higher, the largest and most esteemed is the state-supported University of S o Paulo (USP), established in 1934, which incorporated the historic College of Law (Faculdade de Direito) in the old S o Francisco Square. USP, Dell Latitude E5520 Battery
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as it is generally known, enrolls a very high proportion of Brazil's doctoral students and has spawned a wide variety of research institutes and policy centre. Affiliated institutions include the Butantan Institute, a world-famous centre for research on snakes and the production of toxins and antitoxins. Dell Latitude E6520 Battery

The Pontifical Catholic University of S o Paulo was established in 1946 and has earned an enviable reputation among the continent's private institutions of higher learning. Also of note among Greater S o Paulo's many other public and private colleges and universities is the School of Business Administration of the Get lio Vargas Foundation. Dell Latitude E6510 Battery

View of Albert Einstein Israelite Hospital.
S o Paulo is the largest health care hub in Latin America. Among its best hospitals are the Albert Einstein Israelites Hospital, ranked as the best in Latin America and the Hospital das Cl nicas, the largest in the region. In the city In terms of public health facilities, Dell Latitude E6500 Battery
Dell INSPIRON 9300 Battery he city is home to institutions from all the three levels of government, federal, state and municipal. The private health care sector is also very large, and most of the best hospitals in Brazil are located in the city. As of September 2009, the city of S o Paulo had:[91] Dell Latitude E5510 Battery

32,553 ambulatory clinics, centers and professional offices (physicians, dentists and others);
217 hospitals, with 32,554 beds;
137,745 health care professionals, including 28,316 physicians. Dell Latitude E4300 Battery


Institute of Cancer of S o Paulo is the largest hospital of cancer in Brazil.[92]
Municipal health
Public health facilities in charge of the municipal government are spread all over the city's territory, with a grand total of 770 basic health care units (UBS), ambulatory and emergency clinics, and 17 hospitals. The Municipal Secretary of Health has 59,000 employees, among them more than 8,000 physicians and 12,000 nurses. Dell Latitude E6400 Battery

A population estimated in more than 6,000,000 citizens uses these facilities, which provide drugs at no cost, and manages an extensive family health program (PSF - Programa de Sa de da Fam lia). Dell Latitude E6500 Battery

The Rede S o Paulo Saud vel (Healthy S o Paulo Network) is a satellite-based digital TV corporate channel, developed by the Municipal Health Secretary of S o Paulo, with the goal of bringing programs focused on health promotion and health education, which may be watched by citizens seeking health care in its units in the city. Dell Latitude E6400 Battery
The network consists of two complete TV studios, and a system for transmission of closed digital video in high definition via satellite, with about 1,400 points of reception in all health care units of the municipality of S o Paulo. Dell Precision M4400 Battery


Main article: Music of Brazil


Sala S o Paulo.
Adoniran Barbosa was a famous samba singer and composer who became successful during S o Paulo's radio era. Born in 1912 in the town of Valinhos, Barbosa was known as the composer to the masses, particularly the Italian immigrants living in the quarters of Bela Vista, Dell Precision M6400 Battery
lso known as "Bexiga" and Br s, as well as those who lived in the city's many corti os or tenements. The topics of his songs are drawn from the life of urban workers, the unemployed and those who live on the edge. Dell Latitude E5400 Battery
His first big hit was "Saudosa Maloca" ("Shanty of Fond Memories" - 1951), wherein three homeless friends recall with nostalgia their improvised shanty home, which was torn down by the landowner to make room for a building. In his Trem das Onze ("The 11 pm Train") 1964 record, which has been ranked one of the five best samba songs ever, Dell Latitude E5500 Battery
the protagonist explains to his lover that he cannot stay any longer because he has to catch the last train to the Ja an suburb, for his mother will not sleep before he arrives. An old-school samba band called Dem nios da Garoa still plays his songs in the traditional Bar Brahma venue on S o Jo o Avenue downtown. Dell Latitude E5410 Battery
nother important musician with a similar style is Paulo Vanzoline. Vanzoline is a PhD in Biology and a part-time professional musician. He composed a song depicting a love murder scene in S o Paulo called "Ronda." Dell Precision M5200 Battery

In the late 1960s, a psychedelic rock band called Os Mutantes led the way in the national avant garde music scene. Their success is sometimes related to that of other tropicalia musicians, but they also had a musical style and ideas of their own. The group of Mutantes were known as very paulistanos in their behaviour and clothing. Dell Precision M6500 Battery
Os Mutantes released five albums together before lead singer Rita Lee departed in 1972 to form another group called Tutti-Frutti. Although almost exclusively known in Brazil at that time, Os Mutantes became quite successful abroad after the 1990s (a legend has it that a Brazilian young woman in an exchange programme in California forgot a Mutantes' vinyl record at her host home, and that helped make the band popular in that U.S. state. In 2000, Dell Precision M5200 Battery
Tecnicolor, an album recorded in the early 1970s in English by the band, was released with artwork designed by Sean Lennon.


Ibirapuera Auditorium.
After the two oil price shocks in the 1970s, the country suffered from an economic recession during the 1980s, a phenomenon that was named the lost decade. The very repressive military government of the day did not help in any way the social situation.[93] Dell Latitude E6400 XFR Battery
At the end of the military rule in the early 1980s, a band called Ultrage a Rigor (Elegant Intruder) emerged in the city. They played a simple and irreverent style of rock. The lyrics depicted the changes in society and culture that not only S o Paulo but Brazilian society as a whole were experiencing at the time.
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late punk and garage scene became strong in the 1980s, perhaps associated with the gloomy scenario of unemployment and few actual perspectives from the viewpoint of the youth. All of thriving musicians and artists waiting for their moment to come. Examples of bands originating from this movement include Ira!, Dell inspiron 1526 Battery
it s, Ratos de Por o and Inocentes. In the 1990s, drum & bass became another musical movement in S o Paulo, with artists such as DJ Marky, DJ Patife, XRS, Drumagick, and Fernanda Porto.[94] Many heavy metal bands also originated in S o Paulo, such as Angra, Torture Squad, Korzus and Dr. Sin. Many "alternative" Dell Inspiron 1545 Battery
ultures of S o Paulo mingle at a small shopping mall dubbed Galeria do Rock (English: "Rock Gallery")on 24 de Maio Street, which includes shops which cater to a broad range of alternative niches. Famous alternative band Cansei de Ser Sexy, or CSS (Portuguese for "tired of being sexy") also came from S o Paulo. Dell Inspiron XPS M170 Battery

Classical music is also refined and renowned in the city. Many of the most important classical Brazilian composers who are still alive, like Amaral Vieira, Osvaldo Lacerda and Edson Zampronha, were born in and live in S o Pa loDell Inspiron XPS M1710 Battery
Dell INSPIRON 9200 Battery al baritone Paulo Szot has won international acclaim and a Tony Award nomination for his performance in a 2008 revival of South Pacific. The S o Paulo State Symphony is one of the outstanding orchestras in the world. HP EliteBook 6930P Battery

Music halls and concert halls


Credicard Hall.
S o Paulo's most important opera houses are: Sao Paulo Municipal Theater, Theatro S o Pedro and Sala S o Paulo, the latter being the headquarters of OSESP. The city also counts with several music halls. The main ones are: Credicard Hall, HP EliteBook 8440P Battery
HSBC Music Hall, Olympia, Via Funchal, Villa Country, Carioca Club, Kezebre Rock Bar, Arena Anhembi and Espaco das Am ricas. Lots of bars and cultural centers also have stages for live performances, the soccer stadiums and the Sambadrome host musical presentations as well.

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At this time, the authoritys are preparing the coming next of many new very important halls, like the new Pra a das Artes, with the Municipal Conservatory of Music Chamber Hall, and others veneus, like, Cultura Artistica, Teatro S rgio Cardoso with a venue for only dance performances, and the gorgeous Herzog&DeMeron's Centro Cultural Luz, HP EliteBook 8440W Battery
for Ballet, Opera, theater, and concerts, with three huge halls, thera are also the auditorium of the Latin-American Cultural Center, for concerts, The Mozarteum, held many concerts throw all over the year,this list it's not exhausting, because, almost every month, new places come out. HP EliteBook 8530P Battery

Main article: Literature of Brazil


M rio de Andrade Library.
S o Paulo was home to the first Jesuit missionaries in Brazil, in the early 16th century. They wrote reports to the Portuguese crown about the newly found land, the native peoples and composed pieces of poetry and music for the catechism. HP EliteBook 8530W Battery
mong them were priests such as Manuel da N brega and Jos de Anchieta, living in or near the colony then called Piratininga. They also helped to register the Old Tupi language, lexicon and its grammar. HP EliteBook 8730P Battery

In 1922, the Brazilian Modernist Movement, launched in S o Paulo, also began to achieve a similar cultural independence through different means. Brazil had gone through the same stages of development as the rest of Latin America, but its political and cultural independence came more gradually. HP EliteBook 8730W Battery
he first emperor of Brazil, Pedro I, was a legitimate member of the royal Portuguese dynasty. Although he declared Brazil's independence from Portugal in 1822, the country remained under imperial rule and the dominance of the court in Rio de Janeiro until 1889. HP Probook 4311S Battery


Victor Civita Latin American Library.
With Brazil thus tied to Portuguese culture, Brazilian writers only little by little assumed responsibility for giving expression to their own landscape and ethnic mix of peoples. The presence of large numbers of former slaves added a distinctive African character to the culture. HP Probook 4410S Battery
nd subsequent infusions of immigrants of non-Portuguese origin, from different parts of Europe, helped the new nation to find its own voice and to use it. M rio de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade are the prototypical modernists. HP Probook 4411SBattery
With the urban poems of "Paulic ia Desvairada" and "Carefree Paulistan land" (1922), M rio de Andrade established the movement in Brazil. His rhapsodic novel Macuna ma (1928), with its abundance of Brazilian folklore, represents the apex of modernism's nationalist prose through its creation of an offbeat native national hero. HP Probook 4415S Battery
HP Probook 4416S Battery swald de Andrade's experimental poetry, avant-garde prose, particularly the novel Serafim Ponte Grande (1933), and provocative manifestos exemplify the movement's break with tradition. Modernist artists and writers chose the Municipal Theatre of S o Paulo to launch their Modernist manifesto. HP Pavilion G62-110SA Battery
he site happened to be a bastion of European culture with Opera and classical music presentations brought from Germany, HP Pavilion G62-110SS Battery
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France, Austria, and Italy. It was significant for them to choose such house as their starting point because the high society which frequented it denied its Brazilian roots by speaking languages such as French only in the opera house. Moreover, it behaved as if the rest of Brazil, and Brazilian culture itself, did not matter or did not exist. Both these authors were influential writers from the Modernist school: M rio de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade. HP Pavilion G62-111EE Battery



Municipal Theatre of S o Paulo, "Teatro Municipal de S o Paulo."
Many historians believe that the first theatre performance in Brazil was held in S o Paulo. The Spanish Jesuit missionary Jos de Anchieta (1534-1597) wrote short plays that were performed and watched by the Tupi-Guarani natives. After that, however, S o Paulo became a province and cultural activities wasn't the most important. HP Pavilion G62-112EE Battery
It was only during the 19th's century, second half, that a cultural, musical and theatrical life, begins in the city, at the same time starts a very fast growing development,in almost all aspects of urban life, thanks to the coffee cycle and the wealth it brought, major European ethnic groups started making presentations in some of the state's countryside cities. HP Pavilion G62-112SO Battery
The most important period for the art in S o Paulo took place during, the 40's, it was the avant-garde time. It was in S o Paulo a professional company, Teatro Brasileiro de Com dia, or TBC (Brazilian Theater of Comedy), HP Pavilion G62-113SO Battery
but many others come with. During the 60s, major theater productions in S o Paulo and Brazil were presented by two groups. Teatro de Arena began with a group of students from Escola de Arte Dram tica (Drama Art School), founded by Alfredo Mesquita, in 1948. In 1958, the group excelled with the play "Eles n o usam black tie," HP Pavilion G62-115SE Battery
a masterpiece by Gianfrancesco Guarnieri that, for the first time in the history of the Brazilian drama, had labor workers as protagonists. HP Pavilion G62-115SO Battery

After the military coup of 1964, which was supported by the US, theater plays started focusing on the Brazilian history (Zumbi, Tiradentes). Teatro de Arena was an embattled stage for the democratic resistance during the military dictatorship period, marked by its censorship. Teatro Oficina also played an important role. HP Pavilion G62-117SO Battery
It was there that the Tropicalist movement began. There was a number of plays that represented historic moments, among which "O Rei da Vela", "Galileu Galilei" (1968), "Na Sela das Cidades" (1969) and "Gracias Se or" (1972). Today, HP Pavilion G62-120EC Battery
all kinds of plays are performed at S o Paulo's hundreds of theatres and halls, going from classical music, ballet to avant-garde plays and Broadway musicals. HP Pavilion G62-120EE Battery



Ipiranga Museum, "Museu do Ipiranga."
Museu Paulista
Also popularly known as "Ipiranga Museum", the first monument especially built to preserve the memory of the Independence of Brazil, opened on September 7, 1895, with the name of Museu de Ci ncias Naturais (Natural Science Museum). HP Pavilion G62-120EG Battery
In 1919, it became once again a historic museum. Having the architectural influence of the Versailles Palace in France, the Ipiranga's collection, with approximately 100,000 pieces, comprises works of art, furniture, HP Pavilion G62-120EK Battery lothing, and appliances that once belonged to famous people who took part in Brazilian history, such as explorers, rulers, and freedom fighters. Its facilities are also home to a library with 100,000 books and the "Centro de Documenta o Hist rica," Historic Documentation Center, with 40,000 manuscripts. HP Pavilion G62-150EF Battery

Memorial da Am rica Latina
Stretching over 78,000 square meters, Memorial da Am rica Latina (Latin America's Memorial) was conceived to be a place for the integration of Latin American countries and their roots and cultures. Memorial is home to the headquarters of Parlamento Latino-Americano - Parlatino (Latin American Parliament). HP Pavilion G62-150EQ Battery
Designed by the architect Oscar Niemeyer, Memorial has an exhibition pavilion, where there is a permanent exhibition of the continent's craftwork production; a library with books, newspapers, magazines, videos, films and records about the history of Latin America; and an auditorium with capacity for 1,679 people. HP Pavilion G62-150EV Battery

Museu da Imigra o e Memorial do Imigrante


Memorial of the Immigrant, "Memorial do Imigrante."
Hospedaria do Imigrante (Immigrant's Hostel) was built in 1886 and opened in 1887, when the first immigrants were housed there. The Immigrant's Hostel was built in Br s to welcome the immigrants who arrived in Brazil through the Port of Santos, HP Pavilion G62-150SE Battery
uarantining those who were sick and helping new arrivals to find work in coffee plantations in Western, Northern, and Southwestern S o Paulo State and Northern Paran State. From 1882 to 1978, HP Pavilion G62-150SF Battery
2.5 million immigrants of more than 60 nationalities and ethnicities were guests there,[95] all of them duly registered in the museum's books and lists. The hostel used to serve approximately 3,000 people on average, but under special circumstances, this number reached 8,000. The hostel received the last immigrants in 1978.[96] HP Pavilion G62-150SL Battery

In 1998 the Hostel became a museum, and it preserves the documentation, memory and objects of the immigrants that came to Brazil in search of hope and wealth. Located in one of the few centenarian buildings left in the city of S o Paulo, HP Pavilion G62-153CA Battery
he museum occupies part of the former Hostel. Aside from bringing the immigrants' history to the public, the museum also restores wooden train wagons from the former S o Paulo Railway. There are two restored wagons in the museum. HP Pavilion G62-154CA Battery
ne of them dates from 1914, and another one a second class passenger car, dates from 1931. The Memorial do Imigrante pays homage to the ancestors of millions of Brazilians who arrived through the port of Santos and had S o Paulo as a gateway to Brazil. HP Pavilion G62-165SL Battery t is possible to find in the museum the names of all immigrants who were hosted there from 1888 to 1978.[97]
Museu de Zoologia da USP
Occupying an area of 700 square meters, the animals shown in the museum are samples of the country's tropical fauna and were prepared (embalmed) more than 50 years ago. HP Pavilion DV7 Battery
In the entrance hall, there is information about the main activities carried out by USP's staff and by the museum's researchers. The animals are grouped together according to their classification: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, HP Pavilion DV8 Battery
and some invertebrates such as reefs, crustaceans and mollusks. The library, specialized in zoology, has modern facilities and equipment and serve both the scientific community and the public in general. It has 73,850 works, of which 8,473 are books and 2,364 are newspapers, in addition to theses and maps. HP Pavilion DV7-1020 Battery

Museu de Arte de S o Paulo


S o Paulo Museum of Art, "Museu de Arte de S o Paulo" in Paulista Avenue.
The museum was founded by the journalist Assis Chateaubriand and directed by Pietro Maria Bardi. Its current headquarters, opened in 1968, HP Pavilion DV7-1130 Battery
were designed by the architect Lina Bo Bardi. Two enormous colonnades support the 9,2 thousand ton building, forming a 74-meter free space, unique in the world. MASP has one of world's most important collections of European art,the most important collections are about Italian and French painting schools, but there are including works of art by distinguished artists of others European schools, HP Pavilion DV7-1134 Battery
uch as Degas, Renoir, Modigliani and Bonnard, among others, The collection contains over 9,000 works of art's masterpieces of inestimable value,.
Acervo do Pal cio dos Bandeirantes
The headquarters of the State Government has an important collection of works of art by Brazilian artists, such as Portinari, HP Pavilion DV7-1137 Battery
do Bonadei, Djanira, Almeida J nior, Victor Brecheret, Ernesto de Fiori and Aleijadinho. Additionally, it also gathers colonial furniture, leather and silver artefacts, and European tapestry. In eclectic style, its walls are covered with panels describing the history of S o Paulo. HP Pavilion DV7-1150 Battery

Museu da Imagem e do Som
Opened in May 1990, the main aim of Museu da Imagem e do Som (Image and Sound Museum) is to keep and preserve manifestations in the music, cinema, photography, and graphical arts areas, as well as any other manifestation related to the Brazilian contemporary life. MIS has a collection of more than 200,000 images, HP Pavilion DV7-1170 Battery

  • HP Pavilion DV7-1290EO Battery distributed in thematic collections of diverse content. It has more than 1,600 fiction videotapes, documentaries and music, and 12,750 titles recorded in Super 8 and 16 mm. Additionally, MIS organizes concerts, cinema and video festivals, and photography and graphical arts exhibitions. Sony VGP-BPL8 Battery

Tourism and recreation

Main article: Tourism in Brazil


Ibirapuera Park at night during Christmas.

  • S o Paulo is a major cultural centre. The city has an ethnically diverse metropolitan area, with predominant Italian, Portuguese and African background. It also has a significant number of Spanish, Lebanese and Japanese descendents. Sony VGP-BPL8A Battery
  • S o Paulo is known for its varied and sophisticated cuisine, ranging from Chinese to French, from fast food chains to five star restaurants. There are approximately 62 different types of cuisines in S o Paulo, and more than 12,000 restaurants.[98] Other venues such as bars, pubs, lounges and discos cater to a variety of music tastes. Sony VGP-BPS8 Battery
  • S o Paulo is home to the S o Paulo Museum of Art (MASP), dedicated by Queen Elizabeth II in the first half of the 20th century and "Pinacoteca do Estado" art museums, a symphonic orchestra (S o Paulo State Symphony (OSESP - based in the Sala S o Paulo theatre in the gorgeous Julio Prestes train station)), and a Formula One Grand Prix racing circuit (Interlagos). Sony VGP-BPS8A Battery



Brooklin new Commercial Street.


Cathedral Square, in downtown Sao Paulo.
Paulista Avenue (one of the most important thoroughfares of the city and the site of many cultural centers and museums, such as the MASP and Centro Cultural Ita ). Sony VGP-BPS8B Battery

  • The Zoological Park of S o Paulo is the largest in Brazil. Located in an area of 824,529 m2 (8,875,156 sq ft) of original Atlantic Forest, has approximatelly 4 miles of alleys. It houses the headwaters of the historic stream of Ipiranga, at south side of the city. Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

isplays more than 3,200 animals, 102 species of mammals, 216 species of birds, 95 species of reptiles, 15 species of amphibians and 16 species of invertebrates, in enclosures that replicate the natural habitats of these animals. Dell XPS M1210 Battery

he Zoo's farm of 572 ha, produces vegetables used in the manufacture of feed for various animals, and material to the enclosures where the animals stay. There are animals that need extra area for mating. Dell XPS M1330 Battery

The zoo also counts with a nursery for rejected puppies and incubators for hatching eggs of birds and reptiles. Its library of more than four thousand volumes is open to the public. Its partnerships with other state, federal and foreign research institutions include researches that aim to facilitate the preservation of endangered species. Dell XPS M140 Battery

S o Paulo also has a Safari Zoo located in its southeastern side, in the district of Cursino.

The Aqu rio de S o Paulo (S o Paulo Aquarium) it's one of the largest aquariums in Latin America, with an area of 9,000 square meters and 2 million liters of water. It has approximately 3,000 copies of about 300 species of animals, and it's located in the Ipiranga neighbourhood. Dell XPS M1530 Battery
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Brazil and S o Paulo 2

Posted January 30th, 2012 at 03:18pm

Main article: List of largest cities in Brazil
According to IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) urban areas already concentrate 84.35% of the population, while the Southeast region remains the most populated one, with over 80 million inhabitants.[268] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery
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The largest metropolitan areas in Brazil are S o Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte all in the Southeastern Region with 19.5, 11.5, and 5.1 million inhabitants respectively.[269] Almost all of the state capitals are the largest cities in their states, except for Vit ria, the capital of Esp rito Santo, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31J/S Battery
nd Florian polis, the capital of Santa Catarina. There are also non-capital metropolitan areas in the states of S o Paulo (Campinas, Santos and the Para ba Valley), Minas Gerais (Steel Valley), Rio Grande do Sul (Sinos Valley) and Santa Catarina (Itaja Valley).[270] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31MR/S Battery

view talk edit view talk edit Largest cities of Brazil
Museum of the Portuguese Language in S o Paulo, the first language museum in the world.
The official language of Brazil is Portuguese,[12] which almost all of the population speaks and is virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31S/S Battery
he exception to this is in the municipality of S o Gabriel da Cachoeira where Nheengatu, a currently endangered South American creole language with mostly Indigenous Brazilian languages lexicon and Portuguese-based grammar that once was a major lingua franca in Brazil, has been granted co-official status with Portuguese.[272] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31SR/S Battery
razil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture distinct from those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.[273] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/S Battery

Brazilian Portuguese has had its own development, mostly similar to 16th century Central and Southern dialects of European Portuguese[274] (despite a very substantial number of Portuguese colonial settlers, and more recent immigrants, coming from Northern regions, and in minor degree Portuguese Macaronesia), Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/T Battery

Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery with some influences from the Amerindian and African languages, especially West African and Bantu.[275] As a result, the language is somewhat different, mostly in phonology, from the language of Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries (the dialects of the other countries, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery
artly due to the more recent end of Portuguese colonialism in these regions, have a closer connexion to contemporary European Portuguese). These differences are comparable to those between American and British English.[275] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38E/S Battery

In 1990, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), which included representatives from all countries with Portuguese as the official language, reached an agreement on the reform of the Portuguese orthography to unify the two standards then in use by Brazil on one side and the remaining lusophone countries on the other. This spelling reform went into effect in Brazil on January 1, Sony Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Battery
009. In Portugal, the reform was signed into law by the President on July 21, 2008 allowing for a 6-year adaptation period, during which both orthographies will co-exist. The remaining CPLP countries are free to establish their own transition chronogram.[276] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38S/S Battery

Minority languages are spoken throughout the nation. One hundred and eighty Amerindian languages are spoken in remote areas and a number of other languages are spoken by immigrants and their descendants.[275] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/S Battery
here are significant communities of German (mostly the Hunsr ckisch, a High German language dialect) and Italian (mostly the Talian dialect, of Venetian origin) speakers in the south of the country, both of which are influenced by the Portuguese language.[277][278] Brazil is the first country in South America to offer Esperanto to High School students.[279] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/T Battery

Main article: Culture of Brazil

1 x 0

Choro "1 x 0" ("Um a zero"), recorded by Pixinguinha and Benedito Lacerda. Choro is a brazilian genre of instrumental music.
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The core culture of Brazil is derived from Portuguese culture, because of its strong colonial ties with the Portuguese empire. Among other influences, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language, Roman Catholicism and colonial architectural styles.[280] Sony Vaio VGN-FW5ZRF/H Battery
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he culture was, however, also strongly influenced by African, indigenous and non-Portuguese European cultures and traditions.[281][broken citation] Some aspects of Brazilian culture were influenced by the contributions of Italian, German and other European immigrants who arrived in large numbers in the South and Southeast of Brazil.[282][ Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/P Battery
roken citation] The indigenous Amerindians influenced Brazil's language and cuisine; and the Africans influenced language, cuisine, music, dance and religion.[283]

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Machado de Assis, poet and novelist whose work extends to almost all literary genres, is widely regarded as the greatest Brazilian writer.[284] Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/S Battery
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Brazilian art has developed since the 16th century into different styles that range from Baroque (the dominant style in Brazil until the early 19th century)[285][286] to Romanticism, Modernism, Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism and Abstractionism. Sony Vaio VGN-SR4VR/H Battery
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Brazilian cinema dates back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century and has gained a new level of international acclaim in recent years.[287][broken citation]
Brazilian music encompasses various regional styles influenced by African, European and Amerindian forms. It developed distinctive styles, among them samba, MPB, choro, Sertanejo, brega, forr , frevo, maracatu, bossa nova, and ax . Sony Vaio VGN-FW56Z Battery

Brazilian literature dates back to the 16th century, to the writings of the first Portuguese explorers in Brazil, such as P ro Vaz de Caminha, filled with descriptions of fauna, flora and natives that amazed Europeans that arrived in Brazil.[288] Sony Vaio VGN-SR57S Battery
broken citation] Brazil produced significant works in Romanticism novelists like Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and Jos de Alencar wrote novels about love and pain. Alencar, in his long career, also treated Indigenous people as heroes in the Indigenist novels O Guarany, Iracema, Ubirajara.[289] Sony Vaio VGN-SR57V Battery

Main article: Brazilian cuisine


Feijoada, a dish made with black beans, pork, rice, collard greens, cassava flour and orange
Brazilian cuisine varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's mix of native and immigrant populations. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences.[290] Examples are Feijoada, Sony Vaio VGN-SR57X Battery
onsidered the country's national dish;[291] and regional foods such as vatap , moqueca, polenta and acaraj .[292] Sony Vaio VGN-SR59TH/H Battery

Brazil has a variety of candies such as brigadeiros (chocolate fudge balls), cocada (a coconut sweet), beijinhos (coconut truffles and clove) and romeu e julieta (cheese with a guava jam known as goiabada). Peanut is used to make pa oca, rapadura and p -de-moleque. Local common fruits like a a , cupua u, mango, papaya, cocoa, cashew, Sony Vaio VGN-SR59VG/H Battery
uava, orange, passionfruit, pineapple, and hog plum are turned in juices and used to make chocolates, popsicles and ice cream.[293] Sony Vaio VGN-SR59XG/H Battery

Popular snacks are pastel (a pastry), coxinha (chicken croquete), p o de queijo (cheese bread and cassava flour / tapioca), pamonha (corn and milk paste), esfirra (Lebanese pastry), kibbeh (from Arabic cuisine), empanada (pastry) and empada little salt pies filled with shrimps or hearth of palm. Sony Vaio VGN-FW56ZR Battery
But the everyday meal consist mosty of rice and beans with beef and salad.[294] Its common to mix it with cassava flour (farofa). Fried potatoes, fried cassava, fried banana, fried meat and fried cheese are very often eaten in lunch and served in most typical restaurants.[295] Sony Vaio VGN-FW56SR Battery

The national beverage is coffee and cacha a is Brazil's native liquor. Cacha a is distilled from sugar cane and is the main ingredient in the national cocktail, Caipirinha. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

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Main article: Sport in Brazil


Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Brazil.[296]
The most popular sport in Brazil is football (soccer). The Brazilian national football team is ranked among the best in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings, and has won the World Cup tournament a record five times.[297] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Battery
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Basketball, volleyball, auto racing, and martial arts also attract large audiences. Brazil men's national volleyball team, for example, currently holds the titles of the World League, World Grand Champions Cup, World Championship and the World Cup. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery
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thers sports practiced in Brazil are tennis, team handball, swimming, and gymnastics have found a growing number of enthusiasts over the last decades. Some sport variations have their origins in Brazil: beach football,[298] futsal (indoor football)[299] and footvolley emerged in Brazil as variations of football. In martial arts, Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery
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razilians developed Capoeira,[300] Vale tudo,[301] and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.[302] In auto racing, three Brazilian drivers have won the Formula One world championship eight times. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZRU Battery

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Brazil has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including UFC 134, the 1950 FIFA World Cup[306] and has been chosen to host the 2014 FIFA World Cup.[307] The S o Paulo circuit, Aut dromo Jos Carlos Pace, hosts the annual Grand Prix of Brazil.[308] S o Paulo organized the IV Pan American Games in 1963,[309] Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZU Battery
and Rio de Janeiro hosted the XV Pan American Games in 2007.[309] On 2 October 2009, Rio de Janeiro was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games, the first to be held in South America[310] and second in Latin America after Mexico. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21ER Battery

In May 2010 Brazil launched TV Brasil Internacional, an international television station, initially broadcasting to 49 countries. Luiz In cio Lula da Silva, former President of Brazil, described its aim as "presenting Brazil to the world."[311] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J Battery

S o Paulo

S o Paulo (Portuguese pronunciation: [s w pawlu] ( listen), English: / sa pa lo / Saint Paul;) is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. Sony VAIO VGN-FW3ZJ Battery
The metropolis is anchor to the S o Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among the five-largest metropolitan areas on the planet.[3] S o Paulo is the capital of the state of S o Paulo, Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J Battery
hich is the most populous Brazilian state, and exerts strong regional influence in commerce and finance as well as arts and entertainment. S o Paulo maintains strong international influence and is considered an Alpha World City.[4] The name of the city honors Saint Paul. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21ZR

The metropolis has significant cultural, economic and political influence both nationally and internationally. It houses several important monuments, parks and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Museum of the Portuguese Language, Sony VAIO VGN-FW3ZJ Battery
o Paulo Museum of Art and the Ibirapuera Park. The Paulista Avenue is the most important financial center of S o Paulo. The city holds many high profile events, like the S o Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazil Grand Prix Formula 1 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo Fashion Week, ATP Brasil Open, and the S o Paulo Indy 300. Sony VAIO VGN-FW46M Battery

It is home to the S o Paulo Stock Exchange, the Future Markets, and the Cereal Market Stock Exchanges (the second largest stock exchange in the World, in market value).[5] S o Paulo has been home to several of the tallest buildings in Brazil, including the building Mirante do Vale, Sony VAIO VGN-FW4ZTJ/H
talia, Altino Arantes, North Tower of the UNSCOM (United Nations Centre Enterprise) and many others.
People from the city of S o Paulo are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the whole of S o Paulo state, including the paulistanos. Sony VAIO VGN-FW51 Battery
The city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non dvcor, dvco, which translates as "I am not led, I lead."[6] Sony VAIO VGN-FW51MF/H Battery

The city, which is also colloquially known as "Sampa" or "Cidade da Garoa" (city of drizzle), is also known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, gastronomy, severe traffic congestion, and multitude of skyscrapers.[7] Sony VAIO VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery
Monument to Independence in Independence Park, located at the place where the independence of Brazil was proclaimed. Sony VAIO VGN-FW54M Battery

The first coastal settlement in Brazil, S o Vicente was founded in 1532.[8] It was the first permanent Portuguese colony in the New World.[8] Twenty two years later the Tibiri Chief and Jesuit missionaries Manuel da N brega and Jos de Anchieta founded the village of S o Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga 68 kilometres (42 mi) inland from S o Vicente, on January 25, 1554.

Sony VGN-CS11Z/T Battery The clergymen established a mission at the Col gio de S o Paulo de Piratininga, aimed at converting the Tupi-Guarani indigenous Brazilians to the Catholic faith, as well as make it easier for the Portuguese crown to rule them. Sony VGN-CS21S/R Battery

Anchieta is said to have killed a native, which brings a degree of protest from Indian rights groups against his canonization by the Vatican. The Jesuits were later also often at odds with the Portuguese authorities, mainly the Marqu s de Pombal, who eventually expelled them from Brazil for protecting converted natives in their missions. Sony VGN-CS21S/T Battery
Located just beyond the Serra do Mar cliffs, above the port city of Santos, and close to the Tiet River, the new settlement became the natural entrance from the South East coast to the vast and fertile high plateau to the West that would eventually become the richest Brazilian state. Sony VGN-CS21S/V Battery


S o Paulo central square.
S o Paulo officially became a city in 1711. In the 19th century, it experienced economic prosperity brought about through coffee exports shipped from the neighboring city of Santos.
After the abolition of slavery in 1888, waves of immigrants from Portugal, Italy, Sony VGN-CS21S/W Battery
pain and other European countries emigrated to S o Paulo in order to "bleach the race," as Luso-Brazilian authorities feared Brazil's black population would grow far more than other groups. These Europeans were granted lands as incentives to immigrate and some worked in an indentured fashion at coffee plantations. Sony VGN-CS21Z/Q Battery
Sony VGN-CS11S/P Battery
Newcomers and their descendants ended up "making the America," as they said in Italian and Portuguese, and some of Brazil's greatest entrepreneurs have Italian, Portuguese, and German last names such as Mattarazzo, Diniz, and Mueller. Sony VGN-CS11S/Q Battery


The Martinelli Building, a symbol of S o Paulo's iconic early 20th century architecture.
By the beginning of the 20th century, the coffee cycle had plummeted due to, among other factors, a sharp decline in international coffee prices. Sony VGN-CS11S/W Battery
ith the Wall Street Crash of 1929, coffee barons started losing their influence and status. The Paulistan economy looked for other alternatives such as sugar cane and the production of alcohol. Sony VGN-CS11Z/R Battery
With the difficulties brought about by World War II, when industrialized items had difficultly reaching Brazil, and following the national incipient trend of import-substitution, S o Paulo began industrializing for domestic consumption. Brazil already showed a pattern of huge importation of most fashionable and manufactured products from Europe, which was maintained well into the late 20th century, and created huge trade deficits despite substantial coffee and sugar exports.

Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/S Battery

Correios Palace.
Local entrepreneurs then started investing in the industrial development of S o Paulo, attracting new contingents of immigrants to the city, mainly Italians. In addition to Europeans, Japanese and Syrian and Lebanese immigrants arrived in large numbers in the first half of the 20th century.

Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/T Battery long the 20th century, the booming economy of the city also attracted huge waves of migrants from the poorest regions in Brazil, such as the Northeast. Sony VGN-CS31S/P Battery
Sony VGN-CS31S/R Battery

S o Paulo maintained a high economic growth rate through the 1920s, driven by interrelated streams of immigration, rapid industrialization, and investment. In the early 1920s the Sampaio Moreira Building reached an unprecedented 14 stories, and by the end of the decade the Martinelli Building attained more than twice that height. Sony VGN-CS31S/T Battery
rowing fleets of automobiles and diesel buses allowed hordes of service workers to commute from their outlying homes to jobs in the city center. Sony VGN-CS31S/V Battery

However, due to competition with many other Brazilian cities, which sometimes offer tax advantages for companies to locate manufacturing plants there, S o Paulo's main economic activities have gradually left its industrial profile in favour of the services industry in the late 20th century. Sony VGN-CS31Z/Q Battery
he city is home to a large number of local and international banking offices, law firms, multinational companies and consumer services. Sony VGN-CS31S/W Battery

Early twentieth century pedestrian bridge in central S o Paulo.
Although a modern face had emerged in S o Paulo's better areas by the 1930s, larger portions were basically unchanged. S o Paulo had lacked any city plan before 1889, and no zoning law was passed until 1972. Indeed, SONY VGN-FW41E/H BATTERY
well into the 20th century much of the city retained a colonial aspect, with narrow unpaved streets, shabby buildings, and a few old churches of Jesuit and Franciscan styles. SONY VGN-FW41J/H BATTERY

In 1924 the city was bombed during the Tenente revolts. Between 1920 and 1940 the population more than doubled, reaching 1.3 million. Although Rio de Janeiro had itself grown spectacularly during this period, S o Paulo trailed it by only 460,000 inhabitants and would leapfrog ahead within two decades. SONY VGN-FW41M/H BATTERY
During 1939-45 the engineer-mayor Francisco Prestes Maia built the multilane Avenida 9 de Julho and widened numerous other streets despite resistance from displaced residents. SONY VGN-FW41ZJ/H BATTERY
By 1947 the new star of S o Paulo's skyline was the S o Paulo State Bank building, and, starting with the M rio de Andrade Municipal Library, the city's architecture moved beyond the short period of Art Deco design. Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF/S Battery
y 1950 S o Paulo had grown to a metropolis of 2.2 million compared to Rio's 2.4 million, but a decade later S o Paulo led with 3.7 million to Rio's 3.3 million, thus solidifying its reputation as one of the world's most dynamic urban centres. Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/S Battery
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Skyscrapers in the Berrini region.
Famed architect Oscar Niemeyer was lured from Rio to design the sinuous curves of the Copan Building, and the It lia Building became its towering neighbour. The highly imaginative S o Paulo Art Museum (begun in 1956 and completed in 1968) was built over the juncture of Avenida 9 de Julho and eight-lane Avenida Paulista. Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/T Battery
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Modern highrises in the margins of the Pinheiros River, symbols of the growing Brazilian economy. Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/S Battery

In the 1960s S o Paulo came to include almost half of the population of the State of S o Paulo (Brazil's most populous state) and to account for about one-third of the country's total industrial employment. Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF/S Battery
Because automobiles were becoming a S o Paulo family staple, expressways were built along the canalized Tiet and Pinheiros rivers in 1967, and the Bandeirantes expressway provided access to the city center. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/T Battery

Highway expansion continues to be an ongoing process because the roads running alongside the rivers are among the heaviest used in the country. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/S Battery

Sony VAIO VGN-NW31ZF/S Battery However, no amount of highway construction and street widening could more than briefly alleviate the intolerable traffic congestion. Construction of a subway system was begun in the late 1960s in hopes of improving the situation, and new subway lines continue to be expanded and added and enhanced. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W Battery

Despite its many woes, S o Paulo remains a business hub of Latin America. Having prospered first with the coffee industry, and later with industrialization, in the early 21st century it expanded into the tertiary, or services sector. Its huge market (about 20 million people in greater S o Paulo) is a magnet for multinational corporations. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/P Battery

Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF Battery
Thanks to events such as the Feira Bienal Internacional de Arte, and its reputation for hosting cutting-edge music concerts, it has become something of a cultural center as well. Economic growth and exportation of goods has lifted employment and wages. The murder rate has dropped by almost a quarter since its peak. Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF/P Battery

The historic center profited with the return of the city's government and the arrival of private universities, although businesses continue to move out to new boom neighborhoods such as Itaim and Berrini. Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF/w Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF/S Battery S o Paulo also claims to attract more visitors (mostly, but no longer exclusively, on business) than Rio de Janeiro, testimony of the intense rivalry between the two metropolises. Sony VAIO VGN-NS11Z/S Battery

Physical setting


Pico do Jaragu Mountain is the highest point in the city, at 1,135 metres (3,724 ft).[9]
S o Paulo is located in Southeastern Brazil, in southeastern S o Paulo State, approximately halfway between Curitiba (Capital of Paran State, Sony VAIO VGN-NS11ZR/S Battery
previously part of S o Paulo State) and Rio de Janeiro (former capital of Brazil and now capital of the State which bears the same name). The city is located on a plateau located within the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for "Sea Range"),Sony VAIO VGN-NS21S/S Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NS21S/W Battery
itself a component of the vast region known as the Brazilian Highlands, with an average elevation of around 799 metres (2,621 ft) above sea level, although being at a distance of only about 70 kilometres (43 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean. Sony VAIO VGN-NS21Z/S Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NS31M/P Battery
his distance is covered by two highways, the Anchieta and the Imigrantes, (see "Transportation" section below) that roll down the range, leading to the port city of Santos and the beach resort of Guaruj . Rolling terrain prevails within the urbanized areas of S o Paulo except in the northern area of the city, Sony VAIO VGN-NS31M/S Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NS31M/W Battery
here the Serra da Cantareira Range boasts higher elevations and a sizable remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The entire region is very stable tectonically, and no significant seismic activity has ever been recorded. Sony VAIO VGN-NS31S/S Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NS38M/P Battery

See also: Water management in the Metropolitan Region of S o Paulo
The Tiet River, and its tributary, the Pinheiros River, were once important sources of fresh water and leisure for S o Paulo. However, heavy industrial effluents and wastewater discharges in the later 20th century caused the rivers to become heavily polluted. Sony VAIO VGN-NS38M/W Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery
substantial clean-up program for both rivers is underway, financed through a partnership between local government and international development banks such as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation.[10] Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery
Neither river is navigable in the stretch that flows through the city, although water transportation becomes increasingly important on the Tiet river further downstream (towards South, near river Paran ), as the river is part of the River Plate basin. Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery

There are no large natural lakes in the region, but the Billings and Guarapiranga reservoirs in the southern outskirts of the city are used for power generation, water storage, and leisure activities, such as sailing. Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery

Sony VAIO VGN-NW20SF Battery e original flora consisted mainly of a great variety of broadleaf evergreens. Today, non-native species are common, as the mild climate and abundant rainfall permit a multitude of tropical, subtropical and temperate plants to be cultivated, with eucalyptus being especially ubiquitous. Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery

The city has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cfa), according to the K ppen classification.[11] In summer, mean temperatures are between 17 C (63 F) and 28 C (82 F), and 32 C (90 F) on the hottest days. In winter, are between 11 C (52 F) and 23 C (73 F), and 6 C (43 F). on the coldest days. Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M Battery

Sony VAIO VGN-NW20ZF Battery he highest temperature recorded was 35.3 C (95.5 F) on November 15, 1985.[12] and the lowest recorded was 2 C (28 F) on August 2, 1955, and on the same day 3.8 C (25.2 F) was recorded unofficially. The average temperatures throughout the year are similar to those of Sydney and Los Angeles. Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Battery
The Tropic of Capricorn, at about 23 27' S, passes through north of S o Paulo and roughly marks the boundary between the tropical and temperate areas of South America. Because of its elevation, however, S o Paulo enjoys a distinctly temperate climate.[13] Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery

Rainfall is abundant, amounting to an annual average of 1,454 millimetres (57.2 in).[14] It is especially common in the warmer months average of 219 millimetres (8.6 in), and decreases in winter, average of 47 millimetres (1.9 in). Neither S o Paulo nor the nearby coast has ever been hit by a tropical cyclone, and tornadic activity is uncommon. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MR Battery

Sony VAIO VGN-NW26M Battery Snow flurries were reported officially only once, on June 25, 1918. During late winter, especially August, the city experiences the phenomenon known as "veranico" or "ver ozinho" ("little summer"),Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery
Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery
which consists of a bout of unusually hot and dry weather, sometimes reaching temperatures well above 28 C (82 F). On the other hand, relatively cool days during summer are fairly common when persistent winds blow from the ocean. On such occasions daily high temperatures may not surpass 20 C (68 F), accompanied by lows often below 15 C (59 F). Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

The nonspecific term "Grande S o Paulo" ("Greater S o Paulo") denotes any of S o Paulo's metropolitan area definitions. The legally defined Regi o Metropolitana de S o Paulo consists of 39 municipalities in total, and a population of 19,889,559[18] inhabitants (as of 2010 National Census). Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery

Because S o Paulo is sprawling like Los Angeles, it has another definition for its metropolitan area. Analogous to the US's CSA (Combined Statistical Area) type definition of metropolitan area, it is the third largest city in the world with 27 million inhabitants (Complexo Metropolitano Expandido),[19] behind Tokyo and Jakarta, which includes 2 contiguous legally defined metropolitan regions, and 3 microregions. Sony VGP-BPS13 Batterty
Main article: Subdivisions of the City of S o Paulo
The city of S o Paulo is divided into 31 subprefectures (subprefeituras), each in turn divided into 96 districts. Locally, districts may contain one or more neighborhoods (bairros).[20][21] The subprefectures are officially grouped into nine regions (or "zones"),Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NW24S Battery
taking into account their geographical position and history of occupation. These regions are used only in technical and governmental agencies and are not identified by any visual communication in the city. Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

There is also a geographic radial division established in 2007 by the mayor Gilberto Kassab. These geographical areas (historical downtown, extended downtown, north, south, east, west, Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery

ortheast, northwest, southeast and southwest) are each identified with a distinct color in the buses and in the street plaques. These have no relationship with the subprefectures and districts, and, in some cases, the same district may be in two or more geographic regions. Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF Battery
The Japanese-speaking community of S o Paulo used to live mostly in the Liberdade neighbourhood. Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery

According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 10,659,386 people residing in the city of S o Paulo.[22] The census revealed the following numbers: 6,824,668 White people (60.6%), 3,433,218 Brown (Multiracial) people (30.5%), 736,083 Black people (6.5%), 246,244 Asian people (2.2%), 21,318 Amerindian people (0.2%).[23] Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery

In 2010, the city of S o Paulo was the most populous city in Brazil and in South America.[24]
In 2010, the city had 2,146,077 opposite-sex couples and 7,532 same-sex couples. The population of S o Paulo was 52.6% female and 47.4% male.[23] Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery
S o Paulo is the most ethnically diverse city in Brazil.[25] Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery
At the end of the traffic of enslaved Africans in the country (1850), S o Paulo started to replace the African manpower with immigrants in the coffee plantations. The pioneer in this new project was senator Nicolau Vergueiro, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery
who brought many German, Swiss and Portuguese immigrants to work in his own properties. The next waves of immigrants contained Italians and Portuguese from the mid-19th century until the turn of the century. These were far more adaptable to coffee cultivation and became over time the largest immigrant communities in the state of S o Paulo.[26] Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery

After the abolition of slavery (1888), S o Paulo received increasingly large numbers of European immigrants, most of them coming from Italy, followed by Portugal, Germany and Spain. In 1897, Italians are over half of the city's population. Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN Battery
Portuguese, Spaniards, Germans, Japanese, Jews and Christian Syrian-Lebanese also came in significant numbers. From 1908 to 1941, many Japanese immigrants arrived.[27] In the 1960s, Chinese and Koreans started arrivingSony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery
In the mid-20th century, many from the drought-stricken Northeastern Brazil started to migrate to S o Paulo. Nowadays, the city is witness to a large wave of Bolivian migration.[28]
Immigrants Percentage of immigrants in foreign born population [5] Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery

A French observer, travelling to S o Paulo at the time, noted that there was a division of the capitalist class, by nationality (...) Germans, French, and Italians shared the dry goods sector with Brazilians. Foodstuffs was generally the province of either Portuguese or Brazilians, except for bakery and pastry which was the domain of the French and Germans. Shoes and tinware were mostly controlled by Italians. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MR Battery
owever, the larger metallurgical plants were in the hands of the English and the Americans. (...) Italians outnumbered Brazilians two to one in S o Paulo.[29] Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery

Until 1920, 1,078,437 Italians entered in the State of S o Paulo. Of the immigrants who arrived there between 1887 and 1902, 63.5% came from Italy. Between 1888 and 1919, 44.7% of the immigrants were Italians, 19.2% were Spaniards and 15.4% were Portuguese.[30] Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery
In 1920, nearly 80% of S o Paulo city's population was composed of immigrants and their descendants, and Italians made up over half of its male population.[30] At that time, the Governor of S o Paulo said that "if the owner of each house in S o Paulo display the flag of the country of origin on the roof, from above S o Paulo would look like an Italian city".Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M/S Battery
In 1900, a columnist who was absent from S o Paulo for 20 years wrote "then S o Paulo used to be a genuine Paulista city, today it is an Italian city."[30] Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery

A research conducted by the University of S o Paulo (USP) shows the high ethnical diversity in the city: when asked if they are "descendants of foreign immigrants", 81% of the students reported "yes". The main reported ancestries were: Italian (30.5%), Portuguese (23%), Spanish (14%), Japanese (8%), German (5.6%),Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/W Battery Brazilian (4.3%), African (2.8%), Arab (2.4%) and Jewish (1.2%).[31]
Since the 19th century there is a migration of people from Northeastern Brazil into S o Paulo. However, this internal migration grew enormously in the 1930s and remained huge in the next decades. The concentration of land, modernization in rural areas, Sony VAIO FW Battery

Sony VGP-BPS13B/S Battery hanges in work relationships and cycles of droughts stimulated the high migration rate. The Northeastern migrants live mainly in hazardous and unhealthy areas of the city, in corti os, in various slums (favelas) of the metropolis, because they are cheaper housing alternatives. According to the 2000 Brazilian Census, Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 Battery

Sony VGP-BPS13B/G Battery there were 3,641,148 people from Northeastern Brazil living in S o Paulo, about 20% of the city's population. According to another resource, the largest concentration of Northeastern migrants was found in the area of S /Br s (districts of Br s, Bom Retiro, Cambuci, Pari and S ). In this area they composed 41% of the population.[32] Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M Battery
Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery
Today, the city has the largest community of Italian and Portuguese descendants.
As in all of Brazil, people of different ethnicities mix with each other, producing a multi-ethnic society. Today, people of many different ethnicities make S o Paulo their home.[33] The main groups, considering all the metropolitan area, Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S Battery

Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery
re: 6 million people of Italian descent,[34] 3 million people of Portuguese descent,[35] 1.7 million people of African descent,[36] 1 million people of Arab descent,[37] 665,000 people of Japanese descent,[37] 400,000 people of German descent,[37] 120,000 people of Chinese descent,[37] 40,000 Jews,[38] 60,000 Bolivian immigrants,[39] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery 150,000 people of Greek descent,[37] 250,000 people of French descent[37] and 50,000 people of Korean descent.[40]
The language spoken by the vast majority of the population is Portuguese. Due to the large influx of Italian immigrants, the Portuguese spoken in the city reflects a significant influence from the languages of the Italian peninsula, particularly from Neapolitan and Venetian.[43] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Battery

Italian dialects are mixed with the countryside Caipira accent of S o Paulo. Some linguists maintain that the S o Paulo dialect of Portuguese was born in Mooca, a neighborhood settled in the early 20th century mainly by people from Naples, Southern Italy.[44][45] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery

The Italian influence in the accent of the inhabitants of S o Paulo is more evident in the traditional Italian neighborhoods such as Bexiga, Mooca, Br s and Barra Funda. The Italianism came from the contact of Italian with the Portuguese language and since it is an old influence, it was assimilated or disappeared in the spoken language of the city.

Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Battery n 2009, a councilman from S o Paulo, Juscelino Gadelha, presented a project designed to transform Mooca's accent on "intangible property" of the city of S o Paulo and then protected by law. If approved, the accent of people from Mooca will be preserved on recordings and transcripts. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery

Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery he local accent with Italian influences became notorious through the songs of Adoniran Barbosa, a Brazilian samba singer born to Italian parents who used to sing using the local accent.[46] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery
Other languages spoken in the city are mainly among the Asian community: Liberdade neighborhood is home to the largest Japanese population outside of Japan. Although today most Japanese Brazilians can speak only Portuguese, Sony VGN-FW31ZJ battery
ome of them are still fluent in Japanese. Some people of Chinese and Korean descent are still able to speak their ancestral languages. However, most of the Brazilian-born generations only speak Portuguese.[47] Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery

Brazil and S o Paulo

Posted January 30th, 2012 at 03:56pm

Brazil and S o Paulo

Brazil officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people.[11][12] It is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas and the largest lusophone country in the world.[11] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery

Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 km (4,655 mi).[11] It is bordered on the north by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French overseas region of French Guiana; on the northwest by Colombia; Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ER/S Battery
on the west by Bolivia and Peru; on the southwest by Argentina and Paraguay and on the south by Uruguay. Numerous archipelagos form part of Brazilian territory, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31J/S Battery
and Trindade and Martim Vaz.[11] It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31MR/S Battery

Brazil was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro lvares Cabral in 1500 until 1815, when it was elevated to the rank of kingdom and the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was formed. The colonial bond was in fact broken in 1808, when the capital of the Portuguese colonial empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, after Napoleon invaded Portugal.[13] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31S/S Battery
Independence was achieved in 1822 with the formation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The country became a presidential republic in 1889, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31SR/S Battery
when a military coup d' tat proclaimed the Republic, although the bicameral legislature, now called Congress, dates back to the ratification of the first constitution in 1824.[13] Its current Constitution, formulated in 1988, defines Brazil as a Federal Republic.[14] The Federation is formed by the union of the Federal District, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/S Battery
the 26 States, and the 5,564 Municipalities.[14][15]
The Brazilian economy is the world's seventh largest by nominal GDP and the eighth largest by purchasing power parity.[16][17] Brazil is one of the world's fastest growing major economies. Economic reforms have given the country new international recognition.[18] Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/T Battery
CPLP, Latin Union, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Organization of American States, Mercosul and the Union of South American Nations, and is one of the BRIC countries. Brazil is also one of the 17 Megadiverse countries, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery
home to diverse wildlife, natural environments, and extensive natural resources in a variety of protected habitats.[11]
The word "Brazil" comes from brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast. In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from Latin brasa ("ember") and the suffix -il (from -iculum or -ilium).[19][20][21] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38E/S Battery
As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially-exploited product from Brazil. Through the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples (mostly Tupi) along the Brazilian coast, Sony Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Battery
who sold the timber to European traders (mostly Portuguese, but also French) in return for assorted European consumer goods.[22] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38S/S Battery

The official name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross" (Terra da Santa Cruz), but European sailors and merchants commonly called it simply the "Land of Brazil" (Terra do Brasil) on account of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official name. Early sailors sometimes also called it the "Land of Parrots" (Terra di Papaga). Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/S Battery

In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama". This was the name the natives gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/T Battery

Main article: History of Brazil
Portuguese colonization
Main article: Colonial Brazil
See also: Indigenous peoples in Brazil and Slavery in Brazil
The land now called Brazil was claimed by Portugal in April 1500, on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro lvares Cabral.[23] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery
The Portuguese encountered stone age natives divided into several tribes, most of whom spoke languages of the Tupi-Guarani family, and fought among themselves.[24]
Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization was effectively begun in 1534, when Dom Jo o III divided the territory into twelve hereditary captaincies,[25][26] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11E Battery
but this arrangement proved problematic and in 1549 the king assigned a Governor-General to administer the entire colony.[26][27] The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes[28] while others were enslaved or exterminated in long wars or by European diseases to which they had no immunity.[29][30] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11L Battery
By the mid-16th century, sugar had become Brazil's most important export[24][31] and the Portuguese imported African slaves[32][33] to cope with the increasing international demand.[29][34] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11M Battery


The first Christian mass in Brazil, 1500.
Through wars against the French, the Portuguese slowly expanded their territory to the southeast, taking Rio de Janeiro in 1567, and to the northwest, taking S o Lu s in 1615.[35] They sent military expeditions to the Amazon rainforest and conquered British and Dutch strongholds,[36] founding villages and forts from 1669.[37] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11S Battery

Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31ER Battery In 1680 they reached the far south and founded Sacramento on the bank of the Rio de la Plata, in the Eastern Strip region (present-day Uruguay).[38]
At the end of the 17th century, sugar exports started to decline[39] but beginning in the 1690s, the discovery of gold by explorers in the region that would later be called Minas Gerais (General Mines) in current Mato Grosso and Goi s, saved the colony from imminent collapse.[40] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11Z Battery
From all over Brazil, as well as from Portugal, thousands of immigrants came to the mines.[41]
The Spanish tried to prevent Portuguese expansion into the territory that belonged to them according to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, and succeeded in conquering the Eastern Strip in 1777. However, Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery
this was in vain as the Treaty of San Ildefonso, signed in the same year, confirmed Portuguese sovereignty over all lands proceeding from its territorial expansion, thus creating most of the current Brazilian borders.[42] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J Battery

In 1808, the Portuguese royal family and the majority of the Portuguese nobility, fleeing the troops of the French Emperor Napoleon I that were invading Portugal and most of Central Europe, established themselves in the city of Rio de Janeiro, which thus became the seat of the entire Portuguese Empire.[43] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21M Battery
In 1815 Dom Jo o VI, then regent on behalf of his incapacitated mother, elevated Brazil from colony to sovereign Kingdom united with Portugal.[43] In 1809 the Portuguese invaded French Guiana (which was returned to France in 1817)[44] and in 1816 the Eastern Strip, subsequently renamed Cisplatina.[45] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21S Battery

Independence and empire
Main articles: Brazilian Independence and Empire of Brazil


Declaration of the Brazilian independence by Emperor Pedro I on 7 September 1822.
After the Portuguese military had successfully repelled Napoleon's invasion, the King Jo o VI returned to Europe on 26 April 1821, Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z Battery
leaving his elder son Prince Pedro de Alc ntara as regent to rule Brazil.[46] The Portuguese government, guided by the new political regime imposed by the Liberal Revolution of 1820, attempted to turn Brazil into a colony once again, thus depriving it of its achievements since 1808.[47] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery
The Brazilians refused to yield and Prince Pedro stood by them declaring the country's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.[48] On 12 October 1822, Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil and crowned Dom Pedro I on 1 December 1822.[49] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery


The public flogging of a slave in Rio de Janeiro. From Jean-Baptiste Debret, Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Bresil (1834-1839).
At that time most Brazilians were in favour of a monarchy and republicanism had little support.[50][51] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery

The subsequent Brazilian War of Independence spread through almost the entire territory, with battles in the northern, northeastern, and southern regions.[52] The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on 8 March 1824[53Sony Vaio VGN-FZ19VN Battery
] and independence was recognized by Portugal on 29 August 1825.[54]
The first Brazilian constitution was promulgated on 25 March 1824, after its acceptance by the municipal councils across the country.[55][56][57Sony Vaio VGN-FZ39VN Battery
][58] Pedro I abdicated on 7 April 1831 and went to Europe to reclaim his daughter's crown, leaving behind his five year old son and heir, who was to become Dom Pedro II.[59] Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31ZR Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31SR Battery As the new emperor could not exert his constitutional prerogatives until he reached maturity, a regency was created.[60] Sony Vaio VGN-FZ39VN Battery

Disputes between political factions led to rebellions and an unstable, almost anarchical, regency.[61] It is estimated that from 30 to 40% of the population of the Province of Gr o-Par died during the Cabanagem revolt.[62] The rebellious factions, however, were not in revolt against the monarchy,[63][64] Sony VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Battery
even though some declared the secession of the provinces as independent republics, but only so long as Pedro II was a minor.[65] Because of this, Pedro II was prematurely declared of age and "Brazil was to enjoy nearly half a century of internal peace and rapid material progress."[66]
Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery


Brazilian forces (in blue uniform) engage the Paraguayan army (some in red uniform and other shirtless) during the War of the Triple Alliance. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21J/S Battery

Despite the loss of Cisplatina in 1828 when it became an independent nation known as Uruguay,[67] Brazil won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II (the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the War of the Triple Alliance, which left over 50,000 dead)[68] and witnessed the consolidation of representative democracy, Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Battery
mainly due to successive elections and unrestricted freedom of the press.[69] Most importantly, slavery was extinguished after a slow but steady process that began with the end of the international traffic in slaves in 1850[70] Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/T Battery
and ended with the complete abolition of slavery in 1888.[71] The slave population had been in decline since Brazil's independence: in 1823, 29% of the Brazilian population were slaves but by 1887 this had fallen to 5%.[72]
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When the monarchy was overthrown on 15 November 1889[73] there was little desire in Brazil to change the form of government[74] and Pedro II was at the height of his popularity among his subjects.[75][76] However, he "bore prime, perhaps sole, responsibility for his own overthrow."[77] After the death of his two sons,

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Pedro believed that "the imperial regime was destined to end with him."[78] He cared little for the regime's fate[79][80] and so neither did anything, nor allowed anyone else to do anything, to prevent the military coup, backed by former slave owners who resented the abolition of slavery.[81][82][83]
Early republic
Main articles: Rep blica Velha, Estado Novo (Brazil), and Brazilian Second Republic


The Brazilian coup d' tat of 1930 raised Get lio Vargas (center with military uniform but no hat) to power. He ruled the country for fifteen years. Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery
At the beginning of the republican government it was little more than a military dictatorship,[73] and the new constitution restricted political rights, such as the right to vote,[84][85] yet provided for direct elections to be held in 1894.[86] However, already in 1891, Sony VGP-BPS9A Battery

from the unfoldings of the encilhamento bubble[87][88] and of the 1st naval revolt, the country entered in a prolonged cycle of financial, social and political instability, that would extend until the 1920s keeping the country plagued by several rebellions, both civilian[89][90][91] as military,[92][93][94] Sony VGP-BPS9B Battery
which little by little undermined the regime in a such extent, that by 1930 it was possible to the defeated presidential candidate Get lio Vargas, supported by the majority of military,[95] lead a coup d' tat and assume the presidency.[96]

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Vargas and the military, who were supposed to assume the government temporarily to implement democratic reforms related to 1891's Constitution, closed the Congress and ruled with emergency powers, replacing the states' governors with their supporters.[97][98] Under the Claiming of the broken promises of changing, Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery
in 1932 the oligarchy of S o Paulo tried to regain the power[99] and in 1935 the Communists rebelled,[100] having both been defeated. However, the communist threat served as an excuse for Vargas to preclude elections launching another coup d' tat in 1937, creating a full dictatorship[Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery
n May 1938, there was another failed attempt to take over the power by local fascists.[105][106]
In foreign policy, the success in resolving border disputes with neighboring countries[107] in the early years of this period, was followed by a failed attempt to permanently exert a prominent role in the League of Nations[108] Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery
after military involvement in World War I.[109][110][111] Notwithstanding, Brazil remained neutral at the beginning of World War II until the Pan-American Conference of January 1942 when Brazil stood alongside the U.S.A. severing diplomatic relations with the Axis powers.[112]

Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery In retaliation, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy extended their submarine warfare against Brazil, which led the country to enter the war on the allied side in August of that year.[113][114] Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery

With the allied victory in 1945 and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in another military coup.[115] Democracy was reinstated and General Eurico Gaspar Dutra was elected president taking office in 1946.[116] Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery
Having returned to power democratically elected at the end of 1950, Vargas committed suicide in August 1954 amid a political crisis.[117][118] Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN Battery

Contemporary era
Main articles: Military dictatorship (Brazil) and History of Brazil since 1985


The transition from Fernando Henrique Cardoso to Lu s In cio Lula da Silva indicated that Brazil had finally succeeded in achieving its long-sought political stability. Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M Battery

Several brief interim governments succeeded after Vargas's suicide.[119] Juscelino Kubitscheck became president in 1956 and assumed a conciliatory posture towards the political opposition that allowed him to govern without major crises.[120] Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery
The economy and industrial sector grew remarkably,[121] but his greatest achievement was the construction of the new capital city of Bras lia, inaugurated in 1960.[122] His successor was J nio Quadros, Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Battery
who resigned in 1961 less than a year after taking office.[123] His vice-president, Jo o Goulart, assumed the presidency, but aroused strong political opposition[124] and was deposed in April 1964 by a coup that resulted in a military regime.[125] Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/W Battery
The new regime was intended to be transitory[126] but it gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in 1968.[127] The repression of the dictatorship's opponents, including urban guerrillas,[128] Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/P Battery
was harsh, but not as brutal as in other Latin American countries.[129] Due to the extraordinary economic growth, known as an "economic miracle", the regime reached its highest level of popularity in the years of repression.[130]
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General Ernesto Geisel became president in 1974 and began his project of re-democratization through a process that he said would be "slow, gradual and safe."[131][132] Geisel ended the military indiscipline that had plagued the country since 1889,[133] as well as the torture of political prisoners, censorship of the press,[134] Sony Vaio VGN-CS11Z/T Battery
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and finally, the dictatorship itself, after he extinguished the Fifth Institutional Act.[127] However, the military regime continued, under his chosen successor General Jo o Figueiredo, to complete the transition to full democracy.[135] Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/R Battery
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The civilians fully returned to power in 1985 when Jos Sarney assumed the presidency[136] but, by the end of his term, he had become extremely unpopular due to the uncontrollable economic crisis and unusually high inflation.[137] Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/R Battery

Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery Sarney's unsuccessful government allowed the election in 1989 of the almost unknown Fernando Collor, who was subsequently impeached by the National Congress in 1992.[138] Collor was succeeded by his Vice-President Itamar Franco, who appointed Fernando Henrique Cardoso as Minister of Finance. Sony Vaio VGN-AW21M/H Battery

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Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real (Royal or Real Plan)[139] that granted stability to the Brazilian economy[140] and he was elected as president in 1994 and again in 1998.[141] The peaceful transition of power to Lu s In cio Lula da Silva, who was elected in 2002Sony Vaio VGN-AW21S/B Battery
and re-elected in 2006, proved that Brazil had finally succeeded in achieving its long-sought political stability.[142] Lula was succeeded in 2011 by the current president, Dilma Rousseff.[143]
Geography Sony Vaio VGN-AW21Z/B Battery

Main article: Geography of Brazil
See also: List of countries and outlying territories by total area


Topography map of Brazil
Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior,[144] sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Sony Vaio VGN-AW31ZS/B Battery
Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana and the French overseas department of French Guiana to the north. It shares a border with every country in South America except for Ecuador and Chile. It also encompasses a number of oceanic archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha, Sony Vaio VGN-AW31ZJ/B Battery
Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz.[11] Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Brazil geographically diverse.[144] Including its Atlantic islands, Brazil lies between latitudes 6 N and 34 S, and longitudes 28 and 74 W. Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/W Battery

Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, after Russia, Canada, China and the United States, and third largest in the Americas; with a total area of 8,514,876.599 km2 (3,287,612 sq mi),[145] including 55,455 km2 (21,411 sq mi) of water.[11] Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/T Battery
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It spans three time zones; from UTC-4 in the western states, to UTC-3 in the eastern states (and the official time of Brazil) and UTC-2 in the Atlantic islands.[8] Brazil is the only country in the world that lies on the equator while having contiguous territory outside the tropics. Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/V Battery

Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Much of the terrain lies between 200 metres (660 ft) and 800 metres (2,600 ft) in elevation.[146] The main upland area occupies most of the southern half of the country.[146] Sony Vaio VGN-CS31Z/Q Battery
The northwestern parts of the plateau consist of broad, rolling terrain broken by low, rounded hills.[146] Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/W Battery

The southeastern section is more rugged, with a complex mass of ridges and mountain ranges reaching elevations of up to 1,200 metres (3,900 ft).[146] These ranges include the Mantiqueira and Espinha o mountains and the Serra do Mar.[146] Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/T Battery
In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin from rivers that empty into the Orinoco River system, in Venezuela, to the north. The highest point in Brazil is the Pico da Neblina at 2,994 metres (9,823 ft), and the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean.[11] Sony Vaio VGN-NW21MF Battery

Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic.[147] Major rivers include the Amazon (the world's second-longest river and the largest in terms of volume of water), Sony Vaio VGN-NW21EF Battery
the Paran and its major tributary the Igua u (which includes the Iguazu Falls), the Negro, S o Francisco, Xingu, Madeira and Tapaj s rivers.[147] Sony Vaio VGN-NW21JF Battery
Main article: Climate of Brazil

Snow in S o Joaquim, Santa Catarina in 2010 (South) and tropical climate in Cabedelo, Para ba in 2000 (Northeast). Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/T Battery
The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical.[11] According to the K ppen system, Brazil hosts five major climatic subtypes: equatorial, tropical, Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/Q Battery
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semiarid, highland tropical, temperate, and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil.[148] Many regions have starkly different microclimates.[149][150] Sony Vaio VGN-NS12M/S Battery

An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry season, but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls.[148] Temperatures average 25 C (77 F),[150] Sony Vaio VGN-NS12M/W Battery
with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons.[149]
Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate.[149] This region is as extensive as the Amazon basin but has a very different climate as it lies farther south at a higher altitude.[148] In the interior northeast, Sony Vaio VGN-NS36E Battery
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seasonal rainfall is even more extreme. The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than 800 millimetres (31.5 in) of rain,[151] most of which generally falls in a period of three to five months of the year[152] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ11XN Battery
and occasionally less than this, creating long periods of drought.[149] Brazil's 1877-78 Grande Seca (Great Drought), the most severe ever recorded in Brazil,[153] caused approximately half a million deaths.[154] The one from 1915 was devastating too.[155] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ12EN Battery

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South of Bahia, near S o Paulo, the distribution of rainfall changes, with rain falling throughout the year .[148] The south enjoys temperate conditions, with cool winters and average annual temperatures not exceeding 18 C (64.4 F);[150] winter frosts are quite common, with occasional snowfall in the higher areas.[148][149] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ12XN Battery
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Main articles: Wildlife of Brazil and Deforestation in Brazil


The Amazon Rainforest, the largest tropical forest in the world.
Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon Rainforest, recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world,[156] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ21VN Battery

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with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado, sustaining the greatest biodiversity.[157] In the south, the Araucaria pine forest grows under temperate conditions.[157] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ21XN Battery

The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats. Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million.[157] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ31VT Battery

Larger mammals include pumas, jaguars, ocelots, rare bush dogs, and foxes; peccaries, tapirs, anteaters, sloths, opossums, and armadillos are abundant. Deer are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests.[157][158] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ31XT Battery
Concern for the environment has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues.[159]
See also: Conservation in Brazil
The natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water contamination, climate change, Sony Vaio VPC-CW1S1E/B Battery
fire, and invasive species.[156] In many areas of the country, the natural environment is threatened by development.[160] Construction of highways has opened up previously remote areas for agriculture and settlement; Sony Vaio VPC-CW1S1E/L Battery
dams have flooded valleys and inundated wildlife habitats; and mines have scarred and polluted the landscape.[159][161] At least 70 dams are said to be planned for the Amazon region, including controversial Belo Monte hydroelectric dam.[162] Sony Vaio VPC-CW1S1E/R Battery


Main article: Politics of Brazil


The National Congress in Bras lia, the capital of Brazil.
The Brazilian Federation is the "indissoluble union" of three distinct political entities: the States, the Municipalities and the Federal District.[14] Sony Vaio VPC-CW1S1E/W Battery
The Union, the states and the Federal District, and the municipalities, are the "spheres of government." The Federation is set on five fundamental principles:[14] Sony Vaio VGN-NS38E/S Battery
sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labour and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism. The classic tripartite branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial under the checks and balances system), Sony Vaio VGN-NS38M/W Battery
is formally established by the Constitution.[14] The executive and legislative are organized independently in all three spheres of government, while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state/Federal District spheres. Sony Vaio VGN-AW11S/B Battery

All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected.[163][164][165] Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing entry exams.[163] Sony Vaio VGN-AW11XY/Q Battery
Brazil has a multi-party system for most of its history. Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond 70.[14] Together with several smaller parties, Sony Vaio VGN-AW21XY/Q Battery four political parties stand out: Workers' Party (PT), Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), and Democrats (DEM). Almost all governmental and administrative functions are exercised by authorities and agencies affiliated to the Executive.
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The form of government is that of a democratic republic, with a presidential system.[14] The president is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term,[14] with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The current president is Dilma Rousseff who was inaugurated on January 1, Sony Vaio VGN-NS10L/S Battery
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2011.[166] The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government.[14] Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of law in Brazil. The National Congress is the Federation's bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively. Sony Vaio VGN-NS20E/P Battery

Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress. It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. The largest political parties are the Workers' Party (PT), Democrats (DEM), Sony Vaio VGN-NS20J/P Battery
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB-center), Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB), Progressive Party (PP), Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Liberal Party (PL), Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB), Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Democratic Labor Party (PDT), and the Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB).[167] Sony Vaio VGN-NS20M/S Battery

Main articles: Law of Brazil and Crime in Brazil


Supreme Federal Court building at the Three Powers Plaza.
Brazilian law is based on Roman-Germanic traditions[168] and civil law concepts prevail over common law practice. Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role. Sony Vaio VGN-NS30E/S Battery
Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases. Sony Vaio VGN-NS30Z/S Battery

The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution, which was promulgated on 5 October 1988, and is the fundamental law of Brazil. All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules.[169] As of April 2007, there have been 53 amendments. States have their own constitutions, which must not contradict the Federal Constitution.[170] Sony Vaio VGN-NS20EF/P Battery
Municipalities and the Federal District have "organic laws" (leis org nicas), which act in a similar way to constitutions.[14][171] Legislative entities are the main source of statutes, although in certain matters judiciary and executive bodies may enact legal norms.[14] Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entities, Sony Vaio VGN-NS20EF/S Battery
although in rare situations the Federal Constitution allows the Federal Senate to pass on legal judgments.[14] There are also specialized military, labor, and electoral courts.[14] The highest court is the Supreme Federal Court. Sony Vaio VGN-NS20EF/W Battery

This system has been criticised over the last few decades for the slow pace of decision making. Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings.[172] Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery
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Nevertheless, the Supreme Federal Tribunal was the first court in the world to transmit its sessions on television, and also via YouTube.[173][174] More recently, in December 2009, the Supreme Court adopted Twitter to display items on the day planner of the ministers, to inform the daily actions of the Court and the most important decisions made by them.[175] Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

Brazil continues to have high crime rates in a number of statistics, despite recent improvements. More than 500,000 people have been killed by firearms in Brazil between 1979 and 2003, according to a new report by the United Nations.[176] In 2010, there were 473,600 people incarcerated in Brazilian prisons and jails.[177] Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13/S Battery

Foreign relations
Main article: Foreign relations of Brazil


Itamaraty Palace, headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Brazil is a political and economic leader in Latin America.[178][179] However, social and economic problems have prevented it from becoming an effective global power.[180] Between 1945 and 1990, Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13A/S Battery
both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. More recently, the country has aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/S Battery
and engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States.[181] Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13/Q Battery
Brazil's current foreign policy is based on the country's position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power.[182] In general, current Brazilian foreign policy reflects multilateralism, Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery
peaceful dispute settlement, and nonintervention in the affairs of other countries.[183] The Brazilian Constitution also determines that the country shall seek the economic, political, social and cultural integration of the nations of Latin America.[ Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery
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An increasingly well-developed tool of Brazil's foreign policy is providing aid as a donor to other developing countries.[187] Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery
Brazil does not just use its growing economic strength to provide financial aid, but it also provides high levels of expertise and most importantly of all, a quiet non-confrontational diplomacy to improve governance levels.[187] Total aid is estimated to be around $1 billion per year that includes:[187] Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery
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technical cooperation of around $480 million ($30 million in 2010 provided directly by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC))
an estimated $450 million for in-kind expertise provided by Brazilian institutions specialising in technical cooperation Sony Vaio VGN-NW21MF Battery

In addition, Brazil manages a peacekeeping mission in Haiti ($350 million) and makes in-kind contributions to the World Food Programme ($300 million).[187] This is in addition to humanitarian assistance and contributions to multilateral development agencies. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21EF Battery
The scale of this aid places it on par with China and India and ahead of many western donors.[187] The Brazilian South-South aid has been described as a "global model in waiting."[188] Sony Vaio VGN-NW21JF Battery
Main article: Brazilian Armed Forces
The armed forces of Brazil consist of the Brazilian Army, the Brazilian Navy, and the Brazilian Air Force. With a total of 371,199 active personnel,[189] they comprise the largest armed force in Latin America.[190] The Army is responsible for land-based military operations and has 235,978 active personnel.[191] Sony Vaio VGN-NW21ZF Battery
The Military Police (States' Military Police) is described as an ancillary force of the Army by the constitution, but is under the control of each state's governor.[14] The Navy is responsible for naval operations and for guarding Brazilian territorial waters. Sony Vaio VGN-NW31ZF/S Battery
It is the oldest of the Brazilian armed forces and the only navy in Latin America to operate an aircraft carrier, the NAe S o Paulo (formerly FS Foch of the French Navy).[192] The Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the Brazilian armed forces, and the largest air force in Latin America, with about 700 manned aircraft in service.[193] Sony Vaio VGN-NW31JF Battery

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Brazil is a federation composed of 26 States, one federal district (which contains the capital city, Bras lia) and municipalities.[14] States have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Federal government. Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery
hey have a governor and a unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters. They also have independent Courts of Law for common justice. Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws than in the United States. Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/P Battery
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For example, criminal and civil laws can only be voted by the federal bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country.[14]
The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and Southern. The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/W Battery
nd they do not have any specific form of government. Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the application of federal funds in development projects. Sony Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T Battery
Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government.[14] Each has a mayor and an elected legislative body, but no separate Court of Law. Sony Vaio VGN-NW11Z/S Battery

ndeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called comarca (county).

Main article: Economy of Brazil


An Embraer ERJ-135 commercial jet. Brazil is the world's third largest aircraft producer. Sony Vaio VGN-NW11S/T Battery

Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's seventh largest economy at market exchange rates and the eighth largest in purchasing power parity (PPP), according to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Brazil has a mixed economy with abundant natural resources. Sony Vaio VGN-NW11S/S Battery
The Brazilian economy has been predicted to become one of the five largest in the world in the decades to come, the GDP per capita following and growing.[194] Its current GDP (PPP) per capita is $10,200, Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery
putting Brazil in the 64th position according to World Bank data. It has large and developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing and service sectors, as well as a large labor pool.[195] Sony Vaio VGN-NW20ZF Battery

Brazilian exports are booming, creating a new generation of tycoons.[196] Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef.[197] Sony Vaio VGN-NW24S Battery
The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries.[198] Sony Vaio VGN-NW26M Battery
Brazil pegged its currency, the real, to the U.S. dollar in 1994. However, after the East Asian financial crisis, the Russian default in 1998[199] and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF Battery
the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed-float scheme while undergoing a currency crisis, until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January 1999.[200] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery
Combine in a cotton Brazilian plantation. Brazil is the third largest exporter of agricultural products in the world.[201]
Brazil received an International Monetary Fund rescue package in mid-2002 of $30.4 billion,[202] then a record sum. Brazil's central bank paid back the IMF loan in 2005, although it was not due to be repaid until 2006.[203] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Battery

ne of the issues the Central Bank of Brazil recently dealt with was an excess of speculative short-term capital inflows to the country, which may have contributed to a fall in the value of the U.S. dollar against the real during that period.[204] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery
Nonetheless, foreign direct investment (FDI), related to long-term, less speculative investment in production, is estimated to be $193.8 billion for 2007.[205] Inflation monitoring and control currently plays a major part in the Central bank's role of setting out short-term interest rates as a monetary policy measure.[206] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery
Between 1993 and 2010, 7'012 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of $707 billion with the involvement of Brazlian firms have been announced.[207] The year 2010 was a new record in terms of value with 115 bil. USD of transactions. The largest transaction with involvement of Brazilian companies has been: Cia Vale do Rio Doce acquired Inco in a tender offer valued at $18.9 billion USD. Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery
The purchasing power in Brazil is eroded by the so-called Brazil cost.[208]
Components and energy
Main articles: Agriculture in Brazil, Industry in Brazil, and Energy policy of Brazil

Sony VAIO VGN-FW11J Battery
Itaipu Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric plant by energy generation and second-largest by installed capacity.
Brazil's economy is diverse,[209] encompassing agriculture, industry, and many services.[ Sony VAIO VGN-FW11Z Battery
he recent economic strength has been due in part to a global boom in commodities prices with exports from beef to soybeans soaring.[211][212] Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 5.1% of the gross domestic product in 2007,[213] Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZRU Battery

a performance that puts agribusiness in a position of distinction in terms of Brazil's trade balance, in spite of trade barriers and subsidizing policies adopted by the developed countries.[vague][214][215] Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZU Battery

The industry from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables accounted for 30.8% of the gross domestic product.[213] Industry, which is often technologically advanced, is highly concentrated in metropolitan S o Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Campinas, Porto Alegre, and Belo Horizonte.[216] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J Battery

Brazil is the world's tenth largest energy consumer with much of its energy coming from renewable sources, particularly hydroelectricity and ethanol; nonrenewable energy is mainly produced from oil and natural gas.[217] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21ZR Battery
A global power in agriculture and natural resources, Brazil experienced tremendous economic growth over the past three decades.[218] It is expected to become a major oil producer and exporter, having recently made huge oil discoveries. Sony VAIO VGN-FW3ZJ Battery
The governmental agencies responsible for the energy policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the National Council for Energy Policy, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, and the National Agency of Electricity.[222][223] Sony VAIO VGN-FW41E/H Battery

Science and technology
Main article: Brazilian science and technology


Brazilian National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light in Campinas.
Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes. But more than 73% of funding for basic research still comes from government sources.[224] Some of Brazil's most notable technological hubs are the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, the Butantan Institute, Sony VAIO VGN-FW41J/H Battery
he Air Force's Aerospace Technical Center, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation and the INPE. The Brazilian Space Agency has the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant capabilities[vague] in launch vehicles, launch sites and satellite manufacturing.[225] Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M/H Battery

Uranium is enriched at the Resende Nuclear Fuel Factory to fuel the country's energy demands and plans are underway to build the country's first nuclear submarine.[226] Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin America[227] Sony VAIO VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery
ith an operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research facility on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences. And Brazil is the first and only Latin American country to have a semiconductor company with its own fab, the CEITEC.[228] Sony VAIO VGN-FW46M Battery

Main article: Transport in Brazil


BR-116 highway in the outskirts of Fortaleza.
Brazil has a large and diverse transport network. Roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic. The road system totaled 1.98 million km (1.23 million mi) in 2002. The total of paved roads increased from 35,496 km (22,056 mi) in 1967 to 184,140 km (114,425 mi) in 2002.[229] Sony VAIO VGN-FW4ZTJ/H Battery
Recife Airport
Brazil's railway system has been declining since 1945, when emphasis shifted to highway construction. The total length of railway track was 30,875 km (19,186 mi) in 2002, as compared with 31,848 km (19,789 mi) in 1970. Sony VAIO VGN-FW51 Battery
ost of the railway system belongs to the Federal Railroad Corp., with a majority government interest. The government also privatized seven lines in 1997.[230] Sony VAIO VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery
The S o Paulo Metro was the first underground transit system in Brazil. The other metro systems are in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Bras lia, Teresina, Fortaleza, and Salvador. Sony VAIO VGN-FW51MF/H Battery

There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States.[231] S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, near S o Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport, Sony Vaio VGN-FW5MJF/H Battery
handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic of the country and connecting the city with virtually all major cities across the world.[232] Sony Vaio VGN-FW5MTF/H Battery

Sony Vaio VGN-SR49VT/H Battery
Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Paraguay have been given free ports at Santos. Of the 36 deep-water ports, Santos, Itaja , Rio Grande, Paranagu , Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba, Vit ria, Suape, Manaus and S o Francisco do Sul are some of the most important.[vague][233] Sony Vaio VGN-FW5ZRF/H Battery
The population of Brazil, as recorded by the 2008 PNAD, was approximately 190 million[237] (22.31 inhabitants per square kilometer), with a ratio of men to women of 0.95:1[238] and 83.75% of the population defined as urban.[239] Sony Vaio VGN-FW5ZTF/H Battery

Sony Vaio VGN-FW56SR Battery
he population is heavily concentrated in the Southeastern (79.8 million inhabitants) and Northeastern (53.5 million inhabitants) regions, while the two most extensive regions, the Center-West and the North, which together make up 64.12% of the Brazilian territory, have a total of only 29.1 million inhabitants. Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/P Battery

The first census in Brazil was carried out in 1872 and recorded a population of 9,930,478.[240] From 1880 to 1930, 4 million Europeans arrived.[241] Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/S Battery
Brazil's population increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, due to a decline in the mortality rate, even though the birth rate underwent a slight decline. In the 1940s the annual population growth rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 1950s and remaining at 2.9% in the 1960s, Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/W Battery
s life expectancy rose from 44 to 54 years[242] and to 72.6 years in 2007.[243] It has been steadily falling since the 1960s, from 3.04% per year between 1950-1960 to 1.05% in 2008 and is expected to fall to a negative value of -0.29% by 2050 [244] thus completing the demographic transition.[245] Sony Vaio VGN-SR4VR/H Battery


Brazilians of Italian descent with former President of Brazil, in Rio Grande do Sul.
According to the National Research by Household Sample (PNAD) of 2008, 48.43% of the population (about 92 million) described themselves as White; Sony Vaio VGN-SR49VN/H Battery

3.80% (about 83 million) as Brown (Multiracial), 6.84% (about 13 million) as Black; 0.58% (about 1.1 million) as Asian; and 0.28% (about 536 thousand) as Amerindian, while 0.07% (about 130 thousand) did not declare their race.[246] Sony Vaio VGN-FW56Z Battery

In 2007, the National Indian Foundation reported the existence of 67 different uncontacted tribes, up from 40 in 2005. Brazil is believed to have the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world.[247] Sony Vaio VGN-SR57S Battery

About 85% to 95% of Brazilians descend from the country's indigenous peoples, Portuguese settlers, and African slaves.[248] Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, considerable intermarriage between these three groups has taken place. The brown population (as multiracial Brazilians are officially calledSony Vaio VGN-SR57V Battery
; pardo in Portuguese, also colloquially moreno, or swarthy)[249][250] is a broad category that includes Caboclos (descendants of Whites and Indians), Mulattoes (descendants of Whites and Blacks) and Cafuzos (descendants of Blacks and Indians).[ Sony Vaio VGN-SR57X Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-SR59TH/H Battery
aboclos form the majority of the population in the Northern, Northeastern and Central-Western regions.[254] A large Mulatto population can be found in the eastern coast of the northeastern region from Bahia to Para ba[Sony Vaio VGN-SR59VG/H Battery
nd also in northern Maranh o,[256][257] southern Minas Gerais[258] and in eastern Rio de Janeiro.[253][258] From the 19th century, Brazil opened its borders to immigration. About five million people from over 60 countries migrated to Brazil between 1808 and 1972, most of them from Portugal, Italy, Spain, Germany, Japan and the Middle-East.[259] Sony Vaio VGN-SR59XG/H Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-FW56ZR Battery
In 2008, the illiteracy rate was 11.48%[260] and among the youth (ages 15-19) 1.74%. It was highest (20.30%) in the Northeast, which had a large proportion of rural poor.[261] Illiteracy was high (24.18%) among the rural population and lower (9.05%) among the urban population.[262]
ReligionSony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/B Battery

Brazil possesses a richly spiritual society formed from the meeting of the Roman Catholic Church with the religious traditions of African slaves and indigenous peoples. This confluence of faiths during the Portuguese colonizationSony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/W Battery
of Brazil led to the development of a diverse array of syncretistic practices within the overarching umbrella of Brazilian Roman Catholicism, characterized by traditional Portuguese festivities.[264] Sony Vaio VPCEA1S1E/P Battery

eligious pluralism increased during the 20th century, largely due to a Protestant community that has grown to include over 15% of the population. Sony Vaio VPCEA1S1E/L Battery
Sony Vaio VPCEA1S1E/G Battery

Roman Catholicism is the country's predominant faith. Brazil has the world's largest Catholic population.[265] According to the 2000 Demographic Census (the PNAD survey does not inquire about religion), 73.57% of the population followed Roman Catholicism; 15.41% Protestantism; 1.33% Kardecist spiritism; Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/B Battery
1.22% other Christian denominations; 0.31% Afro-Brazilian religions; 0.13% Buddhism; 0.05% Judaism; 0.02% Islam; 0.01% Amerindian religions; 0.59% other religions, undeclared or undetermined; while 7.35% have no religion.[263] Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/L Battery

However, in the last ten years Protestantism, particularly Pentecostal Protestantism, has spread in Brazil, while the proportion of Catholics has dropped significantly.[266] Sony Vaio VPCEA181 Battery
fter Protestantism, individuals professing no religion are also a significant group, exceeding 7% of the population in the 2000 census. Sony Vaio VGP-BPS22A Battery
The cities of Boa Vista, Salvador and Porto Velho have the greatest proportion of irreligious residents in Brazil. Teresina, Fortaleza, and Florian polis were the most catholic of the country.[267] Sony Vaio VGP-BPS22 Battery

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