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Posted November 30th, 2011 at 11:20am
17] In 1983, a major crackdown was launched on the leadership of the Shiite community with 90 members of the al-Hakim family (an influential family of Shia clerics whose leading members were the migr s Mohammad Baqir al-Hakim and Abdul Aziz Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery
al-Hakim) being arrested and six being hanged. Even more extensive was the crackdown on the Kurds that saw 8,000 members of the Barzani clan, whose leader Massoud Barzani was also the leader of the KDP summarilySony VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery
a glorious jihad and a test of Iranian national character. Right from the beginning, the Iranian regime followed a policy of total war, and attempted to mobilize the entire nation for the struggle. The waSony VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery
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One of the few exceptions to the repressive policies of the government was the tolerance shown to the anti-war Islamic Liberation Movement led by a former prime minister Mehdi Bazargan. In January 1985, Bazargan criticized the Sony VAIO VGN-FW51MF/H Battery
"The economy was collapsing. War and revolution had taken their toll. Only war industries survived, and the standard of living was dropping precipitously. There were no longer enough recruits for the Revolutionary Guards; the Iranian war machine was no longer capable of supplying the huge armies Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery
Sony VGN-CS11S/Q Batteryin June 1988, Saudi Arabia, who had broken diplomatic relations with Iran two months earlier, vetoed a last, desperate Iranian initiative to cut production and thus raise prices again" Sony VGN-CS21S/P Battery
In a public letter to Khomeini sent in May 1988, Bazargan wrote:
Main article: Order of battle during the Iran-Iraq War
Donald Rumsfeld as US special envoy to the Middle East, meets Saddam in December 1983 (video). Rumsfeld would later become US Defense Secretary during the 2003 Iraq War which saw Saddam ousted from power, Sony VGN-CS21Z/Q Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF/S not wish for the end of its alliance with Iraq, and was alarmed at Saddam's threats if the Kremlin did not provide him with the weapons he wanted, then Iraq would find new arms suppliers in the West and in China. The British journalists John Bulloch and Harvey Morris wrote: Sony VGN-CS31S/V Battery
"Throughout the war the Soviet Union remained Iraq's main supplier, as it had always been - the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation signed by Moscow and Baghdad in 1972 was a formalisation of the special Sony VGN-CS31S/W Battery
In addition, the Soviet Union hoped to use the prospect of reducing arms supplies to Iraq as leverage for forming a Soviet-Iranian alliance. The basis of American policy was described by Bulloch and Morris as follows: SONY VGN-FW41E/H BATTERY
"Part of the US dilemma in the Gulf was that the United States was committed to the territorial integrity of a state, Iran, whose rulers were implacably hostile to it. Washington wished to protect other states in the region fromSONY VGN-FW41J/H BATTERY
the advent of the Gorbachev era forced a reappraisal, was outlined by Henry Kissingner in 1982:
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Iran, in other words, should be befriended if possible, but must above, be contained."
that "it's a pity they [Iran and Iraq] both can't lose." Richard Murphy, the Assistant Secretary of State testified to Congress in 1984 that the Reagan administration believed that a victory for either Iran or Iraq was "neither militarily feasible nor strategically desirable". France, which from theSony VAIO VGN-NW11S/S Battery
However, U.S. attention was focused on isolating Iran as well as maintaining freedom of navigation, criticizing Iran's mining of international waters, and sponsored UN Security Council Resolution 598, which passed unanimously Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF/P Battery
On 14 April 1988, the frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts was badly damaged by an Iranian mine, wounding 10 sailors. U.S. forces responded with Operation Praying Mantis on 18 April, the United States Navy's largest engagement of Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF/S Battery
A missile departs the forward launcher of Vincennes during a 1987 exercise. This ship later shot down civilian airliner Iran Air 655. Sony VAIO VGN-NS10E/S Battery
In the course of these escorts by the U.S. Navy, the cruiser USS Vincennes shot down Iran Air Flight 655 with the loss of all 290 passengers and crew on 3 July 1988. The American government claimed that the airliner had beenSony VAIO VGN-NS10J/S Battery
According to an investigation conducted by ABC News' Nightline, decoys were set during the war by the U.S. Navy inside the Persian Gulf to lure out the Iranian gunboats and destroy them, and at the time USS Vincennes shot downSony VAIO VGN-NS11L/S Battery
An Iranian scholar present at the conference said a turning point in Iran's thinking came with the shooting down of an Iranian passenger plane in July 1988 by the American cruiser USS Vincennes. That incident apparently Sony VAIO VGN-NS11ZR/S Battery
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d providing operational intelligence on the battlefield.
In their documentary Saddam-The Trial You Will Never See, made for European audience, Barry Lando and Michel Despratx claim that United States secretary of state Alexander Meigs Haig Jr. wrote in a secret memo to Sony VAIO VGN-NS21S/W Battery
Iraq had a complex relationship with France and the Soviet Union, its major suppliers of actual weapons, to some extent having the two nations compete for its business. Sony VAIO VGN-NS31M/S Battery
Singapore support for Iraq during the Iran-Iraq war discusses land mines assembled there, as well as chemical warfare precursors shipped from Singapore, possibly by an Iraqi front company. Sony VAIO VGN-NS31M/W Battery
Another country that had an important role in arming Iraq was Italy, whose greatest impact was financial, through the U.S. branch of the state-owned largest bank in Italy. The Italian article is one example of howSony VAIO VGN-NS31S/S Battery
North Korea was a major arms supplier to Iran, often acting as a third party in arms deals between Iran and the Communist bloc.. DPRK support included domestically manufactured arms and Eastern-Bloc weapons for which the major powers wanted deniability.. Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery
Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery Libya and China were arms suppliers and supporters of Iran as well.
Iraq's main financial backers were the oil-rich Persian Gulf states, most notably Saudi Arabia ($30.9 billion), Kuwait ($8.2 billion) and the United Arab Emirates ($8 billion).
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In all, Iraq received $35 billion in loans from the West and between $30 and $40 billion from the Persian Gulf states during the 1980s.
See also: Halabja poison gas attack
Chemical weapons, used by Iraq, killed and injured numerous Iranians and Kurds.
United Nations Security Council made a declaration stating that "members are profoundly concerned by the unanimous conclusion of the specialists that chemical weapons on many occasions have been used byDell Studio 15 Battery
Dell Inspiron 1545 Battery in Security Council Resolution 612.
Aftermath of Halabja poison gas attack by the Iraqi Air Force
Iran attacked and partially damaged the Osirak nuclear reactor on 30 September 1980 with two F-4 Phantoms, shortly after the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq War. This was the first attack on a nuclear reactor and Dell Latitude E6500 Battery
The Iran-Iraq War was also the first and only conflict in the history of warfare in which both forces used Ballistic Missiles against each other. Dell Inspiron E1505 Battery
This war also saw the only confirmed air-to-air helicopter battles in history of warfare with the Iraqi Mi-25s flying against Iranian AH-1 SuperCobra on numerous occasions. The first instance of these helicopter "dogfights" happened when on the starting day of the war (22 September 1980), two Iranian SuperCobras crept up on twoDell Inspiron E1705 Battery
As has been the case in many wars, this war had an impact on medical sciences. A new surgical intervention for comatosed patients with penetrating brain injuries which was created by Iranian physicians treating IranianDell Inspiron XPS M1710 Battery
Dell Latitude E5410 Battery wounded soldiers during the war later on helped make new neurosurgical treatment guidelines for use of civilians who have suffered blunt or penetrating skull injuries, thereby greatly improving Dell Latitude E4300 Battery
According to journalist Robin Wright
Queue body of Iranian student victims by Iraqi Bombers Attack to a school in Borujerd at 10 January 1987. HP Pavilion G62-140ET Battery
Toward the end of the war, the land conflict regressed into stalemate largely because neither side had enough self-propelled artillery or air power to support ground advances. HP Pavilion G62-140SF Battery
The relatively profess This led the Iranians to substitute infantry power for artillery.
In retaliation for the Iranian Operation Karbala-5, an early 1987 attempt to capture Basra, Iraq attacked 65 cities in 226 sorties over 42 days, bombing civilian neighborhoods. Eight Iranian cities came under attack from Iraqi missiles. The bombings killed 65 children inHP Pavilion G62-145NR Battery
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Yazd.
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Prisoners taken by both sides were not released until more than 10 years after the end of the conflict. Cities on both sides had also been considerably damaged. Not all saw the war in negative terms. The IslamicHP Pavilion G62-120SE Battery
"There is not a single school or town that is excluded from the happiness of "holy defence" of the nation, from drinking the exquisite elixir of martyrdom, or from the sweet death of the martyr, who dies in order to live forever in paradise." HP Pavilion G62-120SS Battery
The Iraqi government commemorated the war with various monuments, including the Hands of Victory and the Al-Shaheed Monument, both in Baghdad. HP Pavilion G62-120SW Battery
The war left the borders unchanged. Two years later, as war with the western powers loomed, Saddam recognized Iranian rights over the eastern half of the Arvand rud, a reversion to the status quo ante bellum that he had repudiated a decade earlier.
On 9 December 1991, the UN Secretary-General reported the following to the UN Security Council: HP Pavilion G62-125EV Battery
"That Iraq's explanations do not appear sufficient or acceptable to the international community is a fact. Accordingly, the outstanding event under the violations referred to is the attack of 22 September 1980, against Iran, which cannot be justified under the charter of the United Nations, any recognized rules and principles of internationalHP Pavilion G62-130EK Battery
regret the experts' conclusion that "chemical weapons had been used against Iranian civilians in an area adjacent to an urban center lacking any protection against that kind of attack" (s/20134, annex). The Council expressed its dismay on the matter and its condemnation in Resolution 620 (1988), adopted on 26 August 1988."
Posted November 30th, 2011 at 10:10am
The Iran-Iraq War was an armed conflict between the armed forces of Iraq and Iran, lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the longest conventional war of the twentieth century. It was initially referred to in English as the "Persian Gulf War" prior to the "Gulf War" of 1990. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11E Battery
long-suppressed Shia majority influenced by the Iranian Revolution. Iraq was also aiming to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state. Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of the revolutionary chaos in Iran andSony VAIO VGN-FZ11M Battery
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The war of 1980-1988 is also known in Iran as the Imposed War ( , Jang-e-tahm l ) and the Holy Defense ( , Def '-e-moqqaddas). In Iraq, the president, Saddam Hussein initially dubbed the conflict the "Whirlwind War".[21Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery
In 1971, Iraq broke diplomatic relations with Iran after claiming sovereignty rights over the islands of Abu Musa, Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb in the Persian Gulf, following the withdrawal of the British. Iraq thenSony VAIO VGN-AR11S Battery
The relationship between the Iranian and Iraqi governments briefly improved in 1978, when Iranian agents in Iraq discovered a pro-Soviet coup d' tat against the Iraqi government. When informed of this plot, Saddam, who wasSony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery
] The call, first made by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in June 1979 for Iraqi Shias to overthrow the Ba'ath regime was therefore received with considerable shock in Baghdad. On 17 July 1979, despite Khomeini's call, the Iraqi President Saddam Hussein gave a speech praising the Iranian revolution, and called for Iraqi-IranianSony VAIO VGN-CR21E/L Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-CR31S/L Batterycivilian and military projects. On several occasions Hussein alluded to the Islamic conquest of Iran in propagating his position against Iran. For example, on 2 April 1980, half a year before the outbreak of the warSony VAIO VGN-CR11S/L Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-CR31S/P Battery, in a visit by Hussein to al-Mustansiriyyah University in Baghdad, drawing parallels with the 7th century defeat of Persia in the Battle of al-Q disiyyah, he announced:
Iraqi Shia groups by the new regime in Iran led Hussein to increasingly perceive the Iranian regime as a mortal threat that if ignored, might one day overthrow him. In April 1980, Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr Sony Vaio VGN-CR42Z/R Battery
Iraqi pretext for war and Iraqi war aims
The Arvand river waterway on the Iran-Iraq border
attempted assassination of Aziz and, three days later, the bombing of a funeral procession being held to bury students who had died in an earlier attack. Iraq blamed Iran, and in September, attacked.
An armed Iranian militia woman in front of a mosque during the Iraqi invasion of Khorramshahr, September-October 1980Sony Vaio VGN-CR41S/W Battery
This river...must have its Iraqi-Arab identity restored as it was throughout history in name and in reality with all the disposal rights emanating from full sovereignty over the river.",
Executing Iraqi POWs by Iranian Troops
Kh zest n Province of Iran, native name,
strike in depth with a few MiG-23BN, Tu-22 and Su-20 aircraft, largely ineffective due to Iran's sheer size. Three MiG-23s managed to attack Tehran, striking its airport but damaging only a few aircraft. The next day, Iraq launched aSony Vaio VGN-CR31Z/N Battery
Of the six Iraqi divisions that were invading, four were sent against the Iranian province of Khuzestan, which was located near the southern end of the border, to cut off the Arvand river from the rest of Iran, and to establish a territorial security zone. The other two divisions invaded through the northern andSony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery
The other two divisions, both armoured, secured the territory bounded by the line Khorramshahr-Ahvaz-Susangerd-Musian, due to an enveloping movement. On the central front, the Iraqis occupied Mehran, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery establish a strong defensive position opposite Suleimaniya to protect the Iraqi Kirkuk oil complex. Iraqi hopes of an uprising by the ethnic Arabs of Khuzestan failed to occur, and most the ethnic Arabs, who were Shiite remained loyal to Iran. The Iraqi troops advancing into Iran Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/P Battery
in 1980 were described by the British journalist Patrick Brogan as "badly led and lacking in offensive spirit..."
Sony Vaio VGN-BZ21VN BatteryIranian artillery. On 24 September, though, the Iranian Navy attacked Basra and, on the way, had destroyed two oil terminals near the Iraqi port of Fao, which reduced Iraq's ability to export oil. The Iranian Air Force also began air strikes in September against strategically importantSony Vaio VGN-CS31S/R Battery
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Sony Vaio VGN-BZ11XN Batteryof artillery duels and raids. Iraq had mobilized 21 divisions for the invasion, while Iran countered with only 13 regular army divisions and one brigade. Of these divisions, only seven were deployed to the border.
On 5 January 1981 the Iranians launched an armoured offensive at Susangerd that saw the Iranians break through the Iraqi lines. However, the Iranian tanks raced through the Iraqi lines with their flanks outprotected, and as a result, the Iranian armoured division was cut off by Iraqi tanks. In theSony Vaio VGN-CS31S/P Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-BZ11EN Battery ensuring battle, the Iranian division was almost totally destroyed in one of the biggest tank battles of the entire war. The Iraqis lost 50 T-62 tanks while the Iranians lost 100 Chieftain and M-60 tanks. The Battle of Dezful had been ordered by President Abulhassan BanisadrSony Vaio VGN-CS31S/V Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-NS36E Batterythat was holding it by 7 December. Operation Jerusalem Way saw the first use of the Iranian "human wave" tactics with the Revolutionary Guard charging the Iraqi positions time after time without the support of artillery or air power until victory. The fall of Bostan massively increased Sony Vaio VGN-NW21MF Battery
1982: Iraqi retreat, Iranian offensive
Demoralized Iraqi soldiers taken PoW at Khorramshahr
Saddam decided to withdraw his armed forces completely from Iran, and that they should be deployed along the international border between Iraq and Iran. Efraim Karsh states that Saddam made this choice becauseSony Vaio VGN-CS11S/T Battery
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Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery per day (79,000 m3/d) that was quite insufficient to pay for the war. Only generous financial support from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the other Gulf states, who feared the consequences of an Iranian victory saved Iraq from bankruptcy. It was estimated that theSony Vaio VGN-AW11S/B Battery
"The other Arab states came to the rescue. Iraq has one of the most unpleasant governments in the region and had shown constant hostility to the monarchies in Jordan, the Gulf and Saudi Arabia. However, the threat of Persian fundamentalism was far more to be feared, and thus the conservative Arab Sony Vaio VGN-AW21XY/Q Battery
Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13/Q Batterystates could not afford to let Iraq be defeated."
Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/S Batteryoverthrow of the Gulf monarchies. Both Kuwait and Saudi Arabia had less than friendly relations with Iraq before 1982, and the reluctant decision to support Iraq was taken only because the consequences of an Iranian victory were considered worse than the continued existence of Saddam's regime. The British journalists John Bulloch and Harvey Morris wrote: Sony Vaio VGN-NS10E/S Battery
"The virulent Iranian campaign, which at its peak seemed to be making the overthrow of the Saudi regime a war aim on a par with the defeat of Iraq, did have an effect on the Kingdom, but not the oneSony Vaio VGN-NS10L/S Battery
On 20 June 1982 Saddam announced that he was prepared to accept a ceasefire on the basis of the pre-war status quo. Khomeini rejected the Iraqi peace offer, and announced that only the overthrow of the Ba'athSony Vaio VGN-NS20E/P Battery
"If the leaders in Tehran had accepted [the Iraqi ceasefire offer], they might have gained at the conference table what over six years they failed to achieve at a huge cost in men and material; but true to the bitterness and intransigenceSony Vaio VGN-NS20M/S Battery
Under the slogans "War, War until Victory" and "The Road to Jerusalem Goes through Karbala", Iran advanced. A tactic used in this advance noted throughout the world was the encouragement of heroism among Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13/S Battery
along with artillery and rocket fire. A great advantage that the Iraqis were to enjoy in the defense of their country was logistical. The front was close to all of the main Iraqi bases and arms depots, and Iraq'sSony VGP-BPS21A/b Battery
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In 1982, with Iranian success on the battlefield, the U.S. made its backing of Iraq more pronounced, supplying it with intelligence, economic aid, normalizing relations with the government (broken during the Sony Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T Battery
Furthest ground gains.
Ali Khamenei, with Iranian soldiers on the front-line. Khamenei opposed Khomeini's decision to extend the war into Iraq. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Battery
In January 1983, an Iraqi-Soviet arms deal was signed in Moscow, which led to the Soviet Union supplying Iraq with T-62 and T-72 tanks; Mig-23 and Mig-25 jets; and SS-21 and Scud-B missiles. By 1987, the Soviet Union Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery
victory that they desired. Iranian numerical superiority might have achieved a break-through if they had attacked across all parts of the front at the same time, but they still lacked the organization for that type of assault. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery
of the cities". There would be five such exchanges throughout the course of the war.
ended in failure as the Iraqi trenches proved to be too tough of a nut for the Iranians to crack.
At least 3,000 Iranians were killed in the fighting in the marshes with Iraqi helicopter gunships being deployed to "hunt" the Iranian troops in the marshes.
An Iranian frigate during the tanker war
attacking tankers carrying Iraqi oil from Kuwait and then any tanker of the Persian Gulf states supporting Iraq. Both nations attacked oil tankers and merchant ships, including those of neutral nations, in an effort to deprive theSony VAIO VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery opponent of trade. Iraq declared that all ships going to or from Iranian ports in the northern zone of the Persian Gulf were subject to attack. Saddam's hope in beginning the "tanker war" was that in response to Iraqi attacks against its shipping, the Iranians might do somethingSony Vaio VPCEB4Z1E/BQ Battery
extreme in retaliation such as closing the Strait of Hormuz to all shipping. The United States had threatened several times to go to war if the Strait of Hormuz was closed. For this reason, the Iranians refused to rise to the bait, Sony Vaio VPCEB4Z1E/BQ Battery
and so limited their attacks in retaliation to Iraqi shipping. Iran attacked tankers carrying Iraqi oil from Kuwait and then any tanker of the Persian Gulf states supporting Iraq. The air and small boat attacks did verySony Vaio VPCEB4Z0E/BQ Battery
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Sony Vaio VPCEB2S1E/WI Batterys on 16 May. Attacks on ships of noncombatant nations in the Persian Gulf sharply increased thereafter, and this phase of the Iraq-Iran war was dubbed the "Tanker War." The Iranian attacks against Saudi shipping led to Saudi F-15s shooting down an Iranian aircraft on 5 June 1984. Sony Vaio VPCEB4M1E/BQ Battery
Cargo Ship under attack
Attacks on shipping
1985 - 86: Offensives and retreats
directed against Basra, codenamed Operation Badr, on 11 March 1985. The Imam Khomeini urged Iranians on saying, "It is our belief that Saddam wishes to return Islam to blasphemy and polytheism. ... if America becomes victorious ... and grants victory to Saddam, Islam will receive such a blow that it will Sony Vaio VPCEB3M1E/BQ Battery
By this time, the failure of the unsupported human wave attacks during 1984 meant that Iran was trying to develop a better working relationship between the army and the Pasdaran. The Iranian government also worked on molding the Revolutionary Guard units into a much more conventional fighting Sony Vaio VPCEB3L1E/T Battery
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People's Mujahedin of Iran supported by Saddam started their ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualties ranged from 2,000 to 10,000. Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/W Battery
1987 saw a renewed wave of Iranian offensives against targets in both the north and south of Iraq. Iranian forces launched Operation Karbala-5 in an attempt to capture Basra, but repulsed after more than two monthsSony Vaio VPCEA1S1E/P Battery
of fighting which saw 20,000 Iraqi and 65,000 Iranian casualties. Among those killed was Iranian commander Hossein Kharrazi. The Iranians came close to breaking through the Iraqi lines and taking Basra, but in the end, Sony Vaio VPCEA1S1E/L Battery
"Reports from the front, both at Faw [Fao] and outside Basra, indicated that the Iranian resistance was surprisingly weak. The army that had shown such courage and lan early in the war now broke in a rout, and fled before the Arabs."
Iraq for its turn announced it was not willing to accept Resolution 598 until Khomeini explicitly disavowed his call for the overthrow of Saddam . Over the next few weeks, Iraq launched several limited offensivesSony Vaio VGN-Z31WN/B Battery
The People's Mujahedin of Iran started their ten-day operation (Operation Mersad) after the Iranian government accepted UN Resolution 598. While Iraqi forces attacked Khuzestan, the Mujahedin attacked western Iran and battled the PasdaranSony VAIO VGN-Z41WD/B Battery
for Kermanshah. Close air support from the Iraqis contributed to whatever gains the Mojahedin made. However, Iranian paratroopers landed behind their lines, and they were met with fierce resistance. Under heavy international Sony VAIO VGN-Z41MD/B Battery
pressure for ending the war, Saddam withdrew his fighter aircraft and the sky opened for the Iranian airborne forces to be deployed behind Mojahedin lines. The operation ended in a defeat for the Mojahedin. Casualty figures range from 2,000 to as high as 10,000. Sony VAIO VGN-Z11WN/B Battery
At first, Saddam followed a policy of attempting to ensure that Iraqi population suffered from the war as a little as possible. There was little rationing, and civilian projects began before the war continued. Sony VAIO VGN-Z21WN/B Battery
At the same time, the already extensive personality cult around Saddam reached new heights of adulation while the regime tightened its control over the military. After the Iranian victories of the spring of 1982 and the Syrian closure of Iraq's main pipeline, Saddam did a volte-face on his policy towards the home front.[116Sony VAIO VGN-Z51WG/B Battery
] A policy of austerity and total war was introduced with the entire population being mobilized for the war effort. All Iraqis were ordered to donate blood, mass demonstrations of loyalty towards Saddam became more common, and some 100,000 Iraqi civilians were ordered to sever the reeds in the southern marshes.[1Sony VAIO VGN-Z21ZN/B Battery
16] To secure the loyalty of the Shiites, Saddam began a policy of allowing more Shiites into the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party and the government, and started efforts to improve Shiite living standards, which tended to be much lowerSony VAIO VGN-Z21MN/B Battery
than those of the Iraqi Arab Sunnis. As part of the effort to ensure Iraqi Shia support for the war, Saddam had the Iraqi state pay for the costs of restoring the tomb of the Imam Ali with white marble being imported from Italy.[11Sony VAIO VGN-Z11XN/B Battery
7] Despite the costs of the war, the Iraqi regime made generous contributions to Shia waqf (religious endowments) as part of the price of buying Iraqi Shia support. The importance of winning Shia support could see that Sony VAIO VGN-Z31VN/X Battery
the expansion of welfare services in Shia areas went on at a time when the Iraqi regime was pursuing a policy of rigid austerity in all other fields other than the military. Khomeini's behavior during his time in exile in NajafSony VAIO VGN-Z21XN Battery
in the 1960s-1970s where he often quarrelled with the leaders of the Iraqi ulema helped to explain why many of the Iraqi Shia ulema supported the Iraqi regime against him in the 1980s. On the whole, Iraqi Shiites supportedSony VAIO VGN-Z31MN/B Battery
their country's war effort against Iran. The British journalist Patrick Brogan reported:
Posted November 28th, 2011 at 09:28am
15 July 2011"': Hundreds of thousands continue to protest in Tahrir Square.
1 August 2011: Egyptian soldiers clash with protesters, tearing down tents. Over 66 people were arrested. Most Egyptians supported the military's action. Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery
This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (Consider using more specific cleanup instructions.) Please help improve this section if you can. The talk page may contain suggestions. (April 2011) Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery
Protesters in Alexandria
Protesters remove portraits of Ex-president Mubarak in Sohag City in upper Egypt
Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q Batterythe morning of 31 January. An estimated 2 million people protested at Tahrir square.
One protest on 1 February was estimated at one million people, The remote city of Siwa had been relatively calm. Local sheikhs, who were reportedly in control of the community, put the community under lockdown after a nearby town was "torched." Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery
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Tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets from the first day (25 January) and most of the days after until 11 February. Crowds exceeded a hundred thousand many times. Some hospitals reported casualties during the clashes of 28 January. Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery
Leading up to the protests, at least six cases of self-immolation were reported, including a man arrested while trying to set himself on fire in downtown Cairo. These cases were inspired by, and began exactly one month after, the acts of self-immolation in Tunisia triggering the 2010-2011 Tunisian uprising. Six instances have beenSony VAIO VGN-FW11 Battery
This template is outdated. Please update this template to reflect recent events or newly available information. Please see the talk page for more information. (September 2011)
By 29 January, 2,000 people were known to be injured. The same day, an employee of the Azerbaijani embassy in Egypt was killed while returning home from work in Cairo; the next day Azerbaijan sent a plane to evacuate citizens and opened a criminal investigation into the death. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery
Funerals for the dead on the "Friday of Anger" were held on 30 January. Hundreds of mourners gathered for the funerals calling for Mubarak's removal. By 1 February, the protests had left at least 125 people dead, although Human Rights Watch said that UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay claimedSony VAIO VGN-FW21I Battery
Main article: International reactions to the 2011 Egyptian revolution
a statement saying "I also reiterate my call upon the Egyptian authorities to urgently establish a constructive and peaceful way to respond to the legitimate aspirations of Egyptian citizens for democratic and socioeconomic reforms."[1Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery
NGOs also expressed concern about the protests and the ensuing heavy-handed state response. Amnesty International described attempts to discourage protests as "unacceptable". Many countries also issued travel warnings or began evacuating their citizens, including the US, Israel, Great Britain, and Japan. Even multinational Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery
Main article: Domestic responses to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011
"Nero burned Rome; Mubarak is burning Egypt"
On 31 January, Mubarak swore in his new cabinet in the hope that the unrest would fade. The protesters did not leave and continued to demonstrate in Cairo's Tahrir Square to demand the downfall of Mubarak. The vice-president and the prime minister were already appointed. He told the new government to preserveSony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/T Battery
In his speech, he asked parliament for reforms:
The Egyptian state cracked down on the media, and shut down internet access, a primary means of communication for the opposition. Journalists were also harassed by the regime's supporters, eliciting condemnation Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF/S Battery
The voters' line in Mokattam, Cairo, during the constitutional referendum on 19 March 2011. The queue was so long it extended well outside the built-up area of Mokattam and into the desert. The referendum witnessed an unprecedented turnout of voters, with over 18 million Egyptians casting their votes. Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery
funds. The public prosecutor also froze the accounts of Adli and his family members on accusations that over 4 million Egyptian pounds ($680,000) were transferred to his personal account by a head of a contractor company, while calling on the Foreign Minister to contact European countries and ask them to freeze the accounts of the defendants. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery
Meanwhile, the United States announced on the same day that it was giving Egypt $150 million in crucial economic assistance to help it transition towards democracy following the overthrow of long time president Mubarak. US Secretary of State Hillary ClintonSony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery
On 19 February, a moderate Islamic party, named (Arabic: ) Al-Wasat Al-Jadid, or the New Center Party, which was outlawed for 15 years was granted official recognition by an Egyptian court. The party was founded in Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery
On 20 February, Dr. Yehia El Gamal a well known activist and law professor, announced (on TV channels) accepting a Vice Prime Minister position within the new government that will be announced on 21-22 February. He also announced the removal of many of the previous government members to alleviate the situation. Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M/S Battery
On 21 February, the Muslim Brotherhood announced it would form a political party for the upcoming parliamentary election, called the Freedom and Justice Party, which was to be led by Dr. Saad Ketatni. Its spokesperson noted Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery
to be handed over to the government. On 24 May 2011, it was announced that Egypt's ousted President Hosni Mubarak and his two sons Gamal and Alaa are to be tried over the deaths of anti-government protesters in the revolution that began on 25 January. Dell Studio 15 Battery
Court trials of state officials accused of corruption
On 24 May, former Egyptian President Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of premeditated murder of peaceful protestors during the 2011 Egyptian revolution and, if convicted, could face the death penalty. The full list of charges released by the public prosecutor was "intentional murder, attempted killing of someDell LATITUDE D800 Battery
Dell Latitude E5500 BatteryMorocco,Yemen, and Syria have all witnessed major protests. In addition, minor incidents have occurred in Iraq, Kuwait, Mauritania, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, and Sudan.
The protests in Egypt were not centred around religion-based politics, but nationalism and a broad-based social consciousness. Before the uprising, the most organised and prominent opposition movements throughout the Arab world usuallyDell Latitude E6500 Battery
social justice, and dignity. Islamist organisations also emerged with greater freedom to operate. Although the cooperative, inter-faith revolution itself was no guarantee that partisan politics would not re-emerge in its wake, its success nonethelessDell Inspiron 9400 Battery
represented a change from the intellectual stagnation created by decades of repression which simply pitted modernity and Islam against one another as conflicting and incompatible. Islamists and secularists both have been faced with new opportunities for Dell Inspiron E1505 Battery
Dell Latitude E5400 Batterypart of the society, any emergent regime is bound to be attuned to religion. In his view a democracy that excluded all religion from public life, as in France, could succeed in Egypt and no Arab democracy could disallow the participation of political Islam if it were to be genuine. Dell Inspiron 1545 Battery
Since the revolution Islamist parties such as the Muslim Brotherhood have shown unprecedented strength in the new more democratic landscape, taking leading roles in constitutional changes, voter mobilization, and protests. This was a noted concern among the secular and youth movements, who wanted any elections Dell Inspiron XPS M170 Battery
Dell Precision M6400 Batteryto be held later rather than sooner, so that they might catch up with the already well-organized groups. Elections are to be held in September 2011 and it is unclear which group or approach will prevail.
A female protester wearing a niq b
The wide participation and the significant contributions by Egyptian women to the protests have been attributed to the fact that many, especially younger women, are better educated than previous generations, representing more than half of Egyptian university students. This has been an empowering factor for women, who haveDell Latitude E6400 Battery
From left to right: One of the 2 army vehicles that were burned during the army attacks on 9 April 2011 and one of the protestors holding some of the army bullets, standing in front of a burning army vehicle that was burned during the army attack on 9 April 2011 in Tahrir Square, at least 2 protestors were killed by the army and tens wounded. HP Pavilion G62-120EL Battery
The Egyptian Armed Forces enjoy a better reputation with the public than the police does, the former perceived as a professional body protecting the country, the latter accused of systemic corruption and illegitimate violence. All four Egyptian presidents since the 1950s have come from the military into power. Key Egyptian military personnel include the Defense Minister Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and General Sami Hafez Enan, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces. The Egyptian military totals around 468,500 well-armed active personnel, plus a reserve of 479,000. HP Pavilion G62-120EP Battery
As Head of Egypt's Armed Forces, Tantawi has been described as "aged and change-resistant" and is attached to the old regime. He has used his position as Defense Minister to oppose reforms, economic and political, which he saw HP Pavilion G62-120ES Battery
the peace treaty, both Israel and Egypt receive billions of dollars in aid annually from the United States, with Egypt receiving over US$1.3 billion of military aid each year in addition to economic and development assistance. According to Juan Cole, many HP Pavilion G62-125EK Battery
HP Pavilion G62-140ET BatteryEgyptian youth feel ignored by Mubarak on the grounds that he is not looking out for their best interests and that he rather serves the interests of the West. The cooperation of the Egyptian regime in enforcing the bl
HP Pavilion G62-140ES Batteryockade of the Gaza Strip was also deeply unpopular among the general Egyptian public.
Coverage by the news network Al Jazeera English provided information about the revolution outside Egypt. HP Pavilion G62-125EV Battery
The April 6 Youth Movement (Arabic: 6 ) is an Egyptian Facebook group started in Spring 2008 to support the workers in El-Mahalla El-Kubra, an industrial town, who were planning to strike on April 6. Activists called on participants to wear black and stay home on the day of the strike. Bloggers and citizen journalists used Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, blogs and other new media tools to report on the strike, alert their networks HP Pavilion G62-130EK Battery
Waleed Rashed (Arabic ) born November 15, 1983 in El Sharkia, Egypt), is one of the co-founders of the April 6 Youth Movement and a prominent participant in the anti-Mubarak demonstrations in Egypt in 2011.
the growing discontent. As the protests began, Google executive Wael Ghonim revealed that he was the person behind the account. Later after the revolution, in an TV interview in the presence of member of the ruling military council, HP Pavilion G62-140US Battery
It is readily believed that a handful of people through Facebook, Twitter, and blogging sparked this uprising. One of which is Wael Ghonim . Many believe Ghonim was the first contributor to spark the Egypt revolution when he created a Facebook page dedicated to Khaled Saeed entitled We Are All Khaled Saeed . Saeed, an Egyptian business man HP Pavilion G62-150EF Battery
Another major contributor is Egyptian activist and member of the 6 April movement
Sharif Abdel Kouddous, a journalist with Democracy Now! had provided live coverage and tweets from Tahrir Square during the protests and has also been credited with using new media to raise awareness regarding the protests. HP Pavilion G62-153CA Battery
The role of social media in the Egyptian uprising has since been widely written and debated about, including in the first edition of the Dubai Debates on the question "Mark Zuckerberg - the new hero of the Arab people?"  Many have argued, based in part on the Egyptian revolution, that social media may be an effective tool in developing nations more generally. HP Pavilion G62-154CA Battery
Posted November 28th, 2011 at 10:36am
than boys. This disproportion is reflected in the rate of literacy, which exceeds 85 percent among males and is about 70 percent among females. Classes are segregated by gender. Higher education has expanded rapidly, Sony Vaio VPCEA3S1E/L Battery
education system as 'medieval' and that its primary goal 'is to maintain the rule of absolute monarchy by casting it as the ordained protector of the faith, and that Islam is at war with other faiths and cultures'.[222Sony Vaio VGN-Z31XN/B Battery
Daily life is dominated by Islamic observance. Five times each day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques scattered throughout the country. Because Friday is the holiest day for Muslims, the weekend begins on Thursday.[225Sony VAIO VGN-Z11WN/B Battery
However, Saudi Wahhabism is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to 'shirk' (that is, idolatry). As a consequence, under Saudi rule, the Hejaz cities have suffered fromSony VAIO VGN-Z31VN/X Battery
, with a keffiyeh (a large checkered square of cotton held in place by a cord coil) or a ghutra (a plain white square made of finer cotton, also held in place by a cord coil) worn on the head. For rare chilly days, Saudi men wear a camel-hair Sony Vaio VGN-Z11XN/B Battery
Agal (Arabic: ) is an Arab headdress constructed of cord which is fastened around the Ghutrah to hold it in place. The agal is usually black in colour.
Bisht (Arabic: ) is a traditional Arabic men's cloak usually only worn for prestige on special occasions such as weddings.
Kameez/Kurta Shalwar is a men's and women's garment. It is worn by Pakistani people in Saudi Arabia.
Censorship has limited the development of Saudi literature, although several Saudi novelists and poets have achieved critical and popular acclaim in the Arab world - albeit generating official hostility in their home country. These include Ghazi Algosaibi, Abdelrahman Munif, Turki al-Hamad and Rajaa al-Sanea. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11L Battery
Cuisine in Saudi Arabia is similar to that of the surrounding Arab countries in the Persian Gulf, and has been heavily influenced by Turkish, Persian, and African food. Islamic dietary laws are enforced: pork is not consumed and other animals are slaughtered in accordance with halal. A dish consisting of a stuffed Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11Z Battery
lamb, known as kh z , is the traditional national dish. Kebabs are popular, as is sh warm (shawarma), a marinated grilled meat dish of lamb, mutton, or chicken. As in the countries of the Gulf, machb s (kabsa), a rice dish with fish or shrimp, is popular. Flat, unleavened bread is a staple of virtually every meal, as are dates and fresh fruit. Coffee, served in the Turkish style, is the traditional beverage. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E Battery
The 2011 Egyptian revolution (Arabic: 25 thawret 25 yan yir, Revolution of 25 January) took place following a popular uprising that began on Tuesday, 25 January 2011 and is still continuing as of November 2011. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J Battery
On 11 February Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak would be stepping down as president and turning power over to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. On 24 May, Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of premeditated murder of peaceful protestors and, if convicted, could face the death penalty. Sony VAIO PCG-5J1L Battery
The military junta, headed by effective head of state Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, announced on 13 February that the constitution would be suspended, both houses of parliament dissolved, and that the military would rule for six months untilSony VAIO PCG-5J2L Battery
Gamal Mubarak in 2006
Egyptian media, as there were no other apparent heirs to the presidency. Bashar al-Assad's rise to power in Syria in June 2000, just hours after Hafez al-Assad's death sparked a heated debate in the Egyptian press regarding the Sony VAIO PCG-7111L Battery
Sony VAIO PCG-8Z1L Batteryreduce his power. The campaign stated, "President Mubarak and his son constantly denied even the possibility of [succession]. However, in reality they did the opposite, including amending the constitution to make sure that Gamal will be the only unchallenged candidate." Sony VAIO PCG-7131L Battery
Over the course of the decade perception grew that Gamal would succeed his father. He wielded increasing power as NDP deputy secretary general, in addition to a post he held heading the party's policy committee. Analysts went so far as describing Mubarak's last decade in power as "the age of Gamal Mubarak." Sony VAIO PCG-7132L Battery
Both Gamal and Hosni Mubarak continued to deny that an inheritance would take place. There was talk, however, of Gamal being elected; with Hosni Mubarak's presidential term set to expire in 2010 there was speculation Gamal would run as the NDP party's candidate in 2011. Sony VAIO PCG-7z1L Battery
After the January-February 2011 protest, Gamal Mubarak stated that he would not be running for the presidency in the 2011 elections.
Main article: Emergency law in Egypt
According to the 2009 Human Rights Report by the U.S. State Department, "Domestic and international human rights groups reported that the Ministry of Interior (MOI) State Security Investigative Service (SSIS), police, and other government entities continued to employ torture to extract information or force confessions. Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery
The deployment of plainclothes forces paid by Mubarak's ruling party, Baltageya, (Arabic: ), has been a hallmark of the Mubarak government. The Egyptian Organisation for Human Rights has documented 567 cases of torture, including 167 deaths, by police that occurred between 1993 and 2007.[ Sony VAIO VGN-FW3ZJ Battery
Corruption in government elections
criticize the government in any way. Under the current state of emergency laws, the government can censor anything if it is considered a threat to "public safety and national security". If any reporter or blogger violates this law by criticizing the government, they could be legally penalized with a fine of 20,000 pounds Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery
($3,650) and up to five years in prison. The Moltaqa Forum for Development and Human Rights Dialogue reported that between January and March 2009, 57 journalists from 13 newspapers faced legal penalties for their governmental critiques. The Egyptian government owns stock in the three largest daily newspapers. The government controls the licensing and distribution of all papers in Egypt. The Egyptian government shut down the Internet to most of Egypt during the recent protests in order to limit communication between protest groups.
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000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. In late 2010 around 40% of Egypt's population of just under 80 million lived on the fiscal income equivalent of roughly US$2 per day, with a large part of the population relying on subsidized goods. Sony VGN-CS21S/T Battery
According to the Peterson Institute for International Economics and other proponents of demographic structural approach (cliodynamics), a basic problem in Egypt is unemployment driven by a demographic youth bulge: with the number of new people entering the job force at about 4% a year, unemployment in Egypt isSony VGN-CS21S/V Battery
Further information: Economy of Egypt
A poor neighbourhood in Cairo
pursued economic reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate GDP growth, but postponed further economic reforms because of global economic turmoil. The international economic downturn slowed Egypt's GDP growth to 4.5% in 2009. In 2010 analysts said the government of Prime Minister Ahmed NazifSony VGN-CS11S/W Battery
by holding more than 60% of the market share. Aladdin Elaasar, an Egyptian biographer and an American professor, estimates that the Mubarak family is worth from $50 to $70 billion. Sony VGN-CS31S/R Battery
The wealth of Ahmed Ezz, the former NDP Organisation Secretary, is estimated to be 18 billion Egyptian pounds; the wealth of former Housing Minister Ahmed al-Maghraby is estimated to be more than 11 billion Egyptian pounds; the wealth of former Minister of Tourism Zuhair Garrana is estimated to be 13Sony VGN-CS31S/T Battery
The perception among Egyptians was that the only people to benefit from the nation's wealth were businessmen with ties to the National Democratic Party; "wealth fuels political power and political power buys wealth." Sony VGN-CS31S/W Battery
During the Egyptian parliamentary election, 2010, opposition groups complained of harassment and fraud perpetrated by the government. Opposition and civil society activists have called for changes to a number of legal and constitutional provisions which affect elections. Sony VGN-CS31Z/Q Battery
In 2010 Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) report assessed Egypt with a CPI score of 3.1, based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts (with 10 being clean and 0 being totally corrupt). SONY VGN-FW41E/H BATTERY
Lead-up to the protests
To prepare for a possible overthrow of Mubarak, opposition groups studied the work of Gene Sharp on non-violent revolution and worked with leaders of Otpor!, the student-led Serbian uprising of 2000. Copies of Sharp's list of 198 non-violent "weapons", translated into Arabic and not always attributed to himSONY VGN-FW41J/H BATTERY
revolution, citing little aspiration of the Egyptian people, low educational levels, and a strong government with the support of the military. The BBC said, "The simple fact is that most Egyptians do not see any way that they can change their country or their lives through political action, be it voting, activism, or going out on the streets to demonstrate."
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A protester holds an Egyptian flag during the protests that started on 25 January 2011 in Egypt
National Police Day protests
Many political movements, opposition parties, and public figures supported the day of revolt, including Youth for Justice and Freedom, Coalition of the Youth of the Revolution, the Popular Democratic Movement for Change and the National Association for Change. The 6 April Youth Movement was a major supporterSony VAIO VGN-NW11S/T Battery
Twenty-six-year-old Asmaa Mahfouz was instrumental in sparking the protests. In a video blog posted two weeks before National Police Day, she urged the Egyptian people to join her on 25 January in Tahrir SquareSony VAIO VGN-NW31JF/S Battery
25 January 2011: The "Day of Revolt": Protests erupted throughout Egypt, with tens of thousands of protesters gathered in Cairo and thousands more in cities throughout Egypt. The protests targeted President Hosni Mubarak's government, and mostly adhered to non-violence. There were some reports of civilian and police casualties. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/S Battery
26 January 2011: "Shutting down The Internet and Mobile Services": After several Facebook groups were created and tweets (from Twitter) called for mass demonstrations, the Egyptian government shut down internet access for mostSony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W Battery
29 January 2011: The military presence in Cairo increased. A curfew was declared, but was widely ignored as the flow of defiant protesters to Tahrir Square continued throughout the night. The military reportedly refused to follow orders to fire live ammunition, and exercised restraint overall. There were no reports of major casualties. Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF Battery
and sticks. President Mubarak reiterated his refusal to step down in interviews with several news agencies. Incidents of violence toward journalists and reporters escalated amid speculation that the violence was being encouraged by Sony VAIO VGN-NS11E/S Battery
10 February 2011: Mubarak formally addressed Egypt amid speculation of a military coup, but rather than resigning (as was widely expected), he simply stated he would delegate some of his powers to Vice President Suleiman, while continuing as Egypt's head of state. Reactions to Mubarak's statement were marked by Sony VAIO VGN-NS11L/S Battery
13 February 2011: The Supreme Council dissolved Egypt's parliament and suspended the Constitution in response to demands by demonstrators. The council declared that it would hold power for six months, or until elections Sony VAIO VGN-NS11Z/S Battery
17 February 2011: The army stated it would not field a candidate in the upcoming presidential elections. Four important figures of the former regime were detained on that day: former interior minister Habib el-Adly, former minister of housing Ahmed Maghrabi former tourism minister Zuheir Garana, and steel tycoon Ahmed Ezz. Sony VAIO VGN-NS12M/W Battery
2 March 2011: The constitutional referendum was tentatively scheduled for 19 March 2011.
5 March 2011: Several State Security Intelligence (SSI) buildings were raided across Egypt by protesters, including the headquarters for Alexandria Governorate and the main national headquarters in Nasr City, Cairo. Sony VAIO VGN-NS21M/P Battery
23 March 2011: The Egyptian Cabinet orders a law criminalising protests and strikes that hampers work at private or public establishments. Under the new law, anyone organising or calling for such protests will be sentenced to jail and/or a fine of LE500,000 (~100,000 USD).
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Posted November 28th, 2011 at 10:35am
The 2011 Saudi Arabia and Egyptian revolution
Kuwait, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates on the east, Oman on the southeast, and Yemen on the south. It is also connected to Bahrain by the King Fahd Causeway. The Red Sea lies to its west, and the Persian Gulf liesSony VAIO VGN-FZ11L Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31ER Battery million are illegal immigrants. Saudi nationals comprise an estimated 16 million people.
The word "Saudi" is derived from the element as-Sa diyya in the Arabic name of the country, which is a type of adjective known as a nisba, formed from the dynastic name of Al Saud ( ). Its inclusion indicated that theSony VAIO VGN-FZ31E Battery
In Pre-Islamic Arabia, apart from a small number of urban trading settlements, such as Mecca and Medina, located in the Hejaz in the west of the Arabian Peninsula, most of what was to become Saudi Arabia was populated by nomadicSony Vaio VGN-FZ39VN Battery
In the 16th century, the Ottomans added the Red Sea and Persian Gulf coast (the Hejaz, Asir and Al-Hasa) to their Empire and claimed suzerainty over the interior. The degree of control over these lands varied over the next four centuries with the fluctuating strength or weakness of the Empire's central authority.[1Sony VAIO VGN-AR31S Battery
Arabia about 1923. Expandable map: Abdul Aziz's domain is in blue with dates of conquest. The Kingdom of the Hejaz, conquered in 1925, is in light green. (The other Hashemite kingdoms of Iraq and Transjordan are also in shades of green) Sony VAIO VGN-AR61S Battery
In 1932, the two kingdoms of the Hejaz and Nejd were united as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Abdul Aziz bin Saud first king of Saudi Arabia
influence on Saudi foreign and domestic policy. The first was the Iranian Islamic Revolution. It was feared that the country's Shi'ite minority in the Eastern Province (which is also the location of the oil fields) might rebel under the influence Sony VAIO VGN-CR21S/L Battery
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after unification in 1932
the Islamist terrorists were deeply unhappy with the government stance.
Oil and gas pipelines in the Middle East.
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President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt (prior to his deposition) to offer his support. Saudi Arabia has also been affected by its own protests. In response, King Abdullah announced a series of benefits for citizens amounting toSony Vaio VGN-CR42Z/N Battery
Main article: Politics of Saudi Arabia
(the traditions of Muhammad) are declared to be the country's constitution, but no written modern constitution has ever been written for Saudi Arabia, and Saudi Arabia remains the only Arab Nation where no national elections have ever taken place, since its creation. No political parties or national electionsSony Vaio VGN-CR41S/W Battery
Monarchy and royal family
Sony Vaio VGN-CR31E/W Batteryis estimated to be anything from 7,000 upwards, with most power and influence being wielded by the 200 or so male descendants of King Abdul Aziz. The key ministries are generally reserved for the royal family, as are the thirteen regional governorships. Long term political and government appointments, such as those of King Abdullah, who had been CommanderSony Vaio VGN-CR31Z/R Battery
The Saudi government and the royal family have often, over many years, been accused of corruption. In a country that is said to "belong" to the royal family and is named for them, the lines between state assetsSony Vaio VGN-CR31SR/L Battery
regulate the succession. In 2009, the king made significant personnel changes to the government by appointing reformers to key positions and the first woman to a ministerial post. However, the changes have been Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery
Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Al ash-Sheikh, Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, the country's most senior religious authority. Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery
4] The government's response to the crisis included strengthening the ulema's powers and increasing their financial support: in particular, they were given greater control over the education system and allowed to enforce stricter observance of Wahhabi rules of moral and social behaviour.[3Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/W Battery
The ulema have historically been led by the Al ash-Sheikh, the country's leading religious family. The Al ash-Sheikh are the descendants of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the 18th century founder of the Wahhabi form of Sunni Islam which is today dominant in Saudi Arabia. The family is second in prestigeSony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery
only to the Al Saud (the royal family) with whom they formed a "mutual support pact" and power-sharing arrangement nearly 300 years ago. The pact, which persists to this day, is based on the Al Saud maintaining Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/P Battery
See also: Terrorism in Saudi Arabia and List of militant incidents in Saudi Arabia
In theory, all males of full age have a right to petition the king directly through the traditional tribal meeting known as the majlis. In many ways the approach to government differs little from the traditional system of tribal rule. Tribal identity remains strong and, outside of the royal family, political influence is frequentlySony Vaio VGN-AW21M/H Battery
Law and human rights
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/P Battery
The primary source of law is the Islamic Sharia derived from the teachings of the Qu'ran and the Sunnah (the traditions of the Prophet). Sharia is not codified and there is no system of judicial precedent. Saudi judges tend to follow the principles of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence (or fiqh) found Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/V Battery
Deera Square, central Riyadh. Known locally as "Chop-chop square", it is the location of public beheadings.
Other human rights issues that have attracted strong criticism include the extremely disadvantaged position of women (see Women in Saudi society below), religious discrimination, the lack of religious freedom and the activities of the religious police (see Religion below). Between 1996 and 2000, SaudiSony Vaio VGN-AW11XY/Q Battery
King Abdullah with US President George W. Bush.
Saudi Arabia's increasing alarm at the rise of Iran is reflected in the reported private comments of King Abdullah urging the US to attack Iran and "cut off the head of the snake". Saudi Arabia has been seen as a moderating Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/B Battery
Main article: Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia
HMS Makkah, an Al Riyadh class frigate.
Spending on defense and security has increased significantly since the mid-'90s and was about US$25.4 billion in 2005. Saudi Arabia ranks among the top 10 in the world in government spending for its military, Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery
representing about 7 percent of gross domestic product in 2005. Its modern high-technology arsenal makes Saudi Arabia among the world's most densely armed nations, with its military equipment being supplied primarily by the US, France and Britain. The United States sold more than $80 billion in military Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery
Ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. The yellow line encloses the ecoregions Arabian Desert, East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands and two other smaller desert areas
Saudi Arabia occupies about 80 percent of the Arabian peninsula, lying between latitudes 16 and 33 N, and longitudes 34 and 56 E. Because the country's southern borders with the United Arab Emirates and Oman are not precisely defined or marked, the exact size of the country remains unknown. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21ZF Battery
Saudi Arabia's geography is dominated by the Arabian Desert and associated semi-desert and shrubland (see satellite image to right). It is, in fact, a number of linked deserts and includes the 647,500 km2 (250,001 sq mi) Rub' al Khali ("Empty Quarter") in the southern part of the country, the world's largest sand desert.[5Sony Vaio VGN-NW31JF Battery
The Nejd landscape: desert and the Tuwaiq Escarpment near Riyadh
Animal life includes wolves, hyenas, mongooses, baboons, hares, sand rats, and jerboas. Larger animals such as gazelles, oryx, and leopards were relatively numerous until the 1950s, when hunting from motor vehicles reduced these animals almost to extinction. Birds include falcons (which are caught andSony Vaio VGN-NW11Z/S Battery
with 40% from the private sector (see below). Saudi Arabia officially has about 260 billion barrels (4.1 1010 m3) of oil reserves, comprising about one-fifth of the world's proven total petroleum reserves. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery
The government is attempting to promote growth in the private sector by privatizing industries such as power and telecommunications. Saudi Arabia announced plans to begin privatizing the electricity companies in 1999, which followed the ongoing privatization of the telecommunications companySony VAIO VGN-FW21I Battery
Oil price increases of
Saudi Arabia is one of only a few fast-growing countries in the world with a relatively high per capita income of $24,200 (2010). Saudi Arabia will be launching six "economic cities" (e.g. King Abdullah Economic City) which are planned to be completed by 2020. These six new industrialized cities are intended to diversify Sony VAIO VGN-FW21ZR Battery
Main article: Demographics of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia population density (person per km2)
About 31% of the population is made up of foreign nationals living in Saudi Arabia. Indian: 1.1 million, Pakistani: 1 million Bangladeshi: 500,000, Filipino: 500,000, Egyptian: 800,000, Yemeni: 800,000, Indonesian: 250,000, Sony VAIO VGN-FW51 Battery
In a 2011 news story, Arab News reported, "Nearly three million expatriate workers will have to leave the Kingdom in the next few years as the Labor Ministry has put a 20 percent ceiling on the country's guest workers." Sony Vaio VPCEB4S1E/WI Battery
177] Crime is not a significant problem. However, Saudi Arabia's objective of being both a modern and Islamic country, coupled with economic difficulties, has created deep social tensions, including the following. ConnectionsSony Vaio VPCEB4M1E/WI Battery
According to a 2009 U.S. State Department communication by Hillary Clinton, United States Secretary of State, (disclosed as part of the Wikileaks U.S. 'cables leaks' controversy in 2010) "donors in Saudi Arabia constitute the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide". Part of this funding Sony Vaio VPCEB4L1E/WI Battery
According to a study conducted by Dr. Nura Al-Suwaiyan, director of the family safety program at the National Guard Hospital, one in four children are abused in Saudi Arabia. The National Society for Human Rights Sony Vaio VPCEB4J1E/PI Battery
See also: Religion in Saudi Arabia and Freedom of religion in Saudi Arabia, Wahhabism, and Salafism
The tomb of Muhammad in Medina
In 2010, the U.S. State Department stated that in Saudi Arabia "freedom of religion is neither recognized nor protected under the law and is severely restricted in practice" and that "government policies continued to place severe restrictions on religious freedom". No faith other than Islam is permitted to be practised, Sony Vaio VPCEB3L1E/T Battery
According to Human Rights Watch, the Shia minority face systematic discrimination from the Saudi government in education, the justice system and especially religious freedom. Restrictions are imposed on the public celebration of Shia festivals such as Ashura and on the Shia taking part in communal public worship. Sony Vaio VPCEB3E9E/BQ Battery
Women in Saudi society
Preserved in niq b
Every adult woman has to have a close male relative as her "guardian". As a result, Human Rights Watch has described the position of Saudi women as no different to being a minor, with little authority over their own lives. The guardian is entitled to make a number of critical decisions on a woman's behalf.[19Sony Vaio VPCEB3E1E/WI Battery
Women also face discrimination in the courts, where the testimony of one man equals that of two women, and in family and inheritance law. Polygamy is permitted for men, and men have a unlilateral right to divorce their wives (talaq) without needing any legal justification.[ Sony Vaio VPCEB2M1E Battery
Sony Vaio VPCEA3L1E/L Battery200] A woman can only obtain a divorce with the consent of her husband or judicially if her husband has harmed her. In practice, it is very difficult for a Saudi woman to obtain a judicial divorce. With regard to the law of inheritance, the Quran specifies that fixed portionsSony Vaio VPCEB2E9E/BQ Battery
Sony Vaio VPCEA3L1E/P Battery of the deceased's estate must be left to the so-called Qu'ranic heirs. Generally, female heirs receive half the portion of male heirs. A Sunni Muslim can bequeath a maximum of a third of his property to non-Qu'ranic heirs. The residue is divided between agnatic heirs. Sony Vaio VPCEB2E1E/BQ Battery
Cultural norms impose restrictions on women when in public, and these are enforced by the religious police, the mutawa. They include requiring women to sit in separate specially designated family sections in restaurants, to wear an abaya (a loose-fitting, full-length black cloak covering the entire body) Sony Vaio VPCEB1Z1E/B Battery
Sony Vaio VPCEA3L1E/P Batteryand to conceal their hair. There is also effectively a ban on women driving.
Although many Saudis would like more freedom in Saudi Arabia, there is evidence that many women do not want radical change. Even many advocates of reform reject foreign critics, for "failing to understand the uniqueness of Saudi society."[21Sony Vaio VPCEB1J1E/WI Battery
Sony Vaio VPCEA3L1E/W Battery] A number of Saudi women have risen to the top of some professions or otherwise achieved prominence, for example Dr. Ghada Al-Mutairi, heads a medical research center in California and Dr. Salwa Al-Hazzaa, head of the ophthalmology department at King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh and was the late King Fahad's personal ophthalmologist. On 25 September 2011, Sony Vaio VPCEA3S1E/W Battery
Posted November 27th, 2011 at 02:13pm
The Gospel of Matthew also describes a Sony Vaio VPCEB1S1E/WI Battery
Anbetung der Hirten (Adoration of the Shepherds) (c. 1500-10), by Italian painter Giorgio da Castelfranco
Clifton Mill in Clifton, Ohio is the site of this Christmas display with over 3.5 million lights.
part of Jewish tradition : "Now on the first day you shall take for yourselves the foliage of beautiful trees, palm branches and boughs of leafy trees and willows of the brook, and you shall rejoice before the LORD your God for seven days. " (Leviticus 23:40)
A Christmas tree at Rockefeller Center, New York City
The traditional colors of Christmas are green and red. White, silver and gold are also popular. Red symbolizes the blood of Jesus, which was shed in his crucifixion, while green symbolizes eternal life, and in particular the evergreen tree, which does not lose its leaves in the winter. Sony Vaio VPCEA3L1E/L Battery
The Christmas tree is considered by some as Christianisation of pagan tradition and ritual surrounding the Winter Solstice, which included the use of evergreen boughs, and an adaptation of pagan tree worship. The EnglishSony Vaio VPCEA3L1E/G Battery
Saint Anselm College decorates with traditional candles in each window and a large Christmas wreathSony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/L Battery
Since the 19th century, the poinsettia, a native plant from Mexico, has been associated with Christmas. Other popular holiday plants include holly, mistletoe, red amaryllis, and Christmas cactus. Along with a Christmas tree, the interior of a home may be decorated with these plants, along with garlands and evergreen foliage. Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/G Battery
Other traditional decorations include bells, candles, candy canes, stockings, wreaths, and angels. Both the displaying of wreaths and candles in each window are a more traditional Christmas display. The concentric assortment of leaves, Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/W Battery
Christmas lights and banners may be hung along streets, music played from speakers, and Christmas trees placed in prominent places. It is common in many parts of the world for town squares and consumer shopping areas to Sony Vaio VPCEA1S1E/G Battery
Music and carols
Christmas carolers in New Jersey.
In the 9th and 10th centuries, the Christmas "Sequence" or "Prose" was introduced in North European monasteries, developing under Bernard of Clairvaux into a sequence of rhymed stanzas. In the 12th century the Parisian monk Adam
By the 13th century, in France, Germany, and particularly, Italy, under the influence of Francis of Asissi, a strong tradition of popular Christmas songs in the native language developed. Christmas carols in English first appear in a 1426 work Sony VAIO VGN-Z41WD/B Battery
The songs we know specifically as carols were originally communal folk songs sung during celebrations such as "harvest tide" as well as Christmas. It was only later that carols began to be sung in church. Traditionally, carols have often been based on medieval chord patterns, and it is this that gives them their uniquely Sony VAIO VGN-Z11WN/B Battery
although the words may have originated in the 13th century.
Child singers in Bucharest, 1841.
Singing of carols initially suffered a decline in popularity after the Protestant Reformation in northern Europe, although some Reformers, like Martin Luther, wrote carols and encouraged their use in worship. Carols largely survived in rural communities until the revival of interest in popular songs in the 19th century. The 18thSony VAIO VGN-Z51WG/B Battery
century English reformer Charles Wesley understood the importance of music to worship. In addition to setting many psalms to melodies, which were influential in the Great Awakening in the United States, he wrote textsSony VAIO VGN-Z21ZN/B Battery
for at least three Christmas carols. The best known was originally entitled "Hark! How All the Welkin Rings", later renamed "Hark! the Herald Angels Sing". Sony VAIO VGN-Z21MN/B Battery
Felix Mendelssohn wrote a melody adapted to fit Wesley's words. In Austria in 1818 Mohr and Gruber made a major addition to the genre when they composed "Silent Night" for the St. Nicholas Church, Oberndorf. William B. Sony VAIO VGN-Z11XN/B Battery
Sandys' Christmas Carols Ancient and Modern (1833) contained the first appearance in print of many now-classic English carols, and contributed to the mid-Victorian revival of the festival.
Completely secular Christmas seasonal songs emerged in the late 18th century. "Deck The Halls" dates from 1784, and the American, "Jingle Bells" was copyrighted in 1857. In the 19th and 20th
Sony VAIO VGN-Z11VN/X Batterycentury, African American spirituals and songs about Christmas, based in their tradition of spirituals, became more widely known. An increasing number of seasonal holidays songs were commerciallySony VAIO VGN-Z21XN Battery
produced in the 20th century, including jazz and blues variations. In addition, there was a revival of interest in early music, from groups singing folk music, such as The Revels, to performers of early medieval and classical music. Sony VAIO VGN-Z31MN/B Battery
Christmas cards are purchased in considerable quantities, and feature artwork, commercially designed and relevant to the season. The content of the design might relate directly to the Christmas narrative with depictions of the Nativity Sony Vaio VGN-Z31WN/B Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-Z41WD/B Batteryof Jesus, or Christian symbols such as the Star of Bethlehem, or a white dove which can represent both the Holy Spirit and Peace on Earth. Other Christmas cards are more secular and can depict ChristmasSony Vaio VGN-Z31VN/X Battery
seals, and are valid for postage year-round. They usually go on sale some time between early October and early December, and are printed in considerable quantities. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Battery
In 1898 a Canadian stamp was issued to mark the inauguration of the Imperial Penny Postage rate. The stamp features a map of the globe and bears an inscription "XMAS 1898" at the bottom. In 1937, Austria issued twoSony VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery
Both the US Postal Service and the Royal Mail regularly issue Christmas-themed stamps each year. Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J Battery
Legendary gift-bringing figures
Sinterklaas or Saint Nicholas, considered by many to be the original Santa Claus.
The most famous and pervasive of these figures in modern celebration worldwide is Santa Claus, a mythical gift bringer, dressed in red, whose origins have diverse sources. The name Santa Claus can be traced back to the Dutch SinterklaasSony VAIO VGN-FW3ZJ Battery
Saint Nicholas traditionally appeared in bishop's attire, accompanied by helpers, inquiring about the behaviour of children during the past year before deciding whether they deserved a gift or not. By the 13th century, Saint Sony VAIO VGN-FW51 Battery
The modern popular image of Santa Claus, however, was created in the United States, and in particular in New York. The transformation was accomplished with the aid of notable contributors including Washington Irving and the Sony VAIO VGN-FW54M BatteryGerman-American cartoonist Thomas Nast (1840-1902). Following the American Revolutionary War, some of the inhabitants of New York City sought out symbols of the city's non-English past. New York had originally been established as the Dutch colonial town of New AmsterdamSony VGN-CS21S/W Battery
Santa Claus is famous around the world for giving gifts to good children.
Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/S Battery that La Befana set out to bring the baby Jesus gifts, but got lost along the way. Now, she brings gifts to all children. In some cultures Santa Claus is accompanied by Knecht Ruprecht, or Black Peter. In other versions, elves make the toys. His wife is referred to as Mrs. Claus.
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periodicals and journals" of New Amsterdam by Charles Jones revealed no references to Saint Nicholas or Sinterklaas. However, not all scholars agree with Jones's findings, which he reiterated in a booklength study in 1978;[6SONY VGN-FW41E/H BATTERY
6] Howard G. Hageman, of New Brunswick Theological Seminary, maintains that the tradition of celebrating Sinterklaas in New York was alive and well from the early settlement of the Hudson Valley on. SONY VGN-FW41J/H BATTERY
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Current tradition in several Latin American countries (such as Venezuela and Colombia) holds that while Santa makes the toys, he then gives them to the Baby Jesus, who is the one who actually delivers them to the children's homes, a reconciliation between traditional religious beliefs and the iconography of Santa Claus imported from the United States. SONY VGN-FW41ZJ/H BATTERY
In South Tyrol (Italy), Austria, Czech Republic, Southern Germany, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Slovakia and Switzerland, the Christkind (Je ek in Czech, J zuska in Hungarian and Je i ko in Slovak) brings the presents. The German St. Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF/S Battery
Mosaic of Jesus as Christo Sole (Christ the Sun) in Mausoleum M in the pre-fourth-century necropolis under St Peter's Basilica in Rome. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W Battery
Modern scholars have argued that the festival was placed on the date of the solstice because this was on this day that the Sun reversed its southward retreat and proved itself to be "unconquered". Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/P Battery
also commented on the connection: "They call it the 'Birthday of the Unconquered'. Who indeed is so unconquered as Our Lord . . .?" Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF/S Battery
Although Dies Natalis Solis Invicti has been the subject of a great deal of scholarly speculation,. the only ancient source for it is a single mention in the Chronography of 354, and modern Sol scholar Steven Hijmans argues that there is no evidence that the celebration precedes that of Christmas: Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/T Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF/S 23] "[W]hile the winter solstice on or around December 25 was well established in the Roman imperial calendar, there is no evidence that a religious celebration of Sol on that day antedated the celebration of Christmas, and none that indicates that Aurelian had a hand in its institution." Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/S Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NW31ZF/S Battery0] Modern Christmas customs include: gift-giving and merrymaking from Roman Saturnalia; greenery, lights, and charity from the Roman New Year; and Yule logs and various foods from Germanic feasts. Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/P Battery
Pagan Scandinavia celebrated a winter festival called Yule, held in the late December to early January period. As Northern Europe was the last part to Christianize, its pagan traditions had a major influence on Christmas, especially Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF/P Battery
Christmas was promoted in the Christian East as part of the revival of Catholicism following the death of the pro-Arian Emperor Valens at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. The feast was introduced to Constantinople in 379, Sony VAIO VGN-NS11S/S Battery
The Examination and Trial of Father Christmas, (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England. Sony VAIO VGN-NS11Z/S Battery
Martin of Tours), now known as Advent. In Italy, former Saturnalian traditions were attached to Advent. Around the 12th century, these traditions transferred again to the Twelve Days of Christmas (December 25 - January 5); Sony VAIO VGN-NS12M/S Battery
By the High Middle Ages, the holiday had become so prominent that chroniclers routinely noted where various magnates celebrated Christmas. King Richard II of England hosted a Christmas feast in 1377 at which twenty-eight oxen and three hundred sheep were eaten. The Yule boar was a common feature of medieval Sony VAIO VGN-NS21M/P Battery
Christmas during the Middle Ages was a public festival that incorporated ivy, holly, and other evergreens. Christmas gift-giving during the Middle Ages was usually between people with legal relationships, such as tenantSony VAIO VGN-NS21Z/S Battery
Reformation into the 19th century
Ebenezer Scrooge and the Ghost of Christmas Present. From Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, 1843.
argued against the Puritans, and makes note of Old English Christmas traditions, dinner, roast apples on the fire, card playing, dances with "plow-boys" and "maidservants", and carol singing. The Restoration of King Charles II inSony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery
Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery 1660 ended the ban, but many clergymen still disapproved of Christmas celebration. In Scotland, the Presbyterian Church of Scotland also discouraged observance of Christmas. James VI commanded its celebration in 1618, however attendance at church was scant. Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery
In Colonial America, the Puritans of New England shared radical Protestant disapproval of Christmas. Celebration was outlawed in Boston from 1659 to 1681. Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery
Settlements in North Carolina, were enthusiastic celebrators of Christmas. The Moravians in Bethlehem had the first Christmas trees in America as well as the first Nativity Scenes. Christmas fell out of favor Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN Battery
By the 1820s, sectarian tension had eased in Britain and writers, including William Winstanly, began to worry that Christmas was dying out. These writers imagined Tudor Christmas as a time of heartfelt celebration, and efforts were made to revive the holiday. In 1843, Charles Dickens wrote the novel A Christmas Carol, thatSony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery
The Queen's Christmas tree at Windsor Castle published in the Illustrated London News, 1848, and republished in Godey's Lady's Book, Philadelphia, December 1850.
Dickens influenced many aspects of Christmas that are celebrated today in Western culture, such as family gatherings, seasonal food and drink, dancing, games, and a festive generosity of spirit. A prominent phrase from the tale, 'Merry Christmas', was popularized following the appearance of the story. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MR Battery
The term Scrooge became a synonym for miser, with 'Bah! Humbug!' dismissive of the festive spirit. In 1843, the first commercial Christmas card was produced by Sir Henry Cole. The revival of the Christmas Carol began with William BSony VGP-BPS13/B Battery
In Britain, the Christmas tree was introduced in the early 19th century following the personal union with the Kingdom of Hanover, by Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen to King George III. In 1832 a young Queen Victoria wroteSony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery
An image of the British royal family with their Christmas tree at Windsor Castle, created a sensation when it was published in the Illustrated London News in 1848. A modified version of this image was published in the United States in 1850. By the 1870s, putting up a Christmas tree had become common in America. Sony VGP-BPS13 Batterty
A Norwegian Christmas, 1846 painting by Adolph Tidemand.
In 1822, Clement Clarke Moore wrote the poem A Visit From St. Nicholas (popularly known by its first line: Twas the Night Before Christmas). The poem helped popularize the tradition of exchanging gifts, and seasonal Christmas shopping began to assume economic importance. This also started the cultural conflictSony VAIO VGN-FZ31J Battery
While the celebration of Christmas was not yet customary in some regions in the U.S., Henry Wadsworth Longfellow detected "a transition state about Christmas here in New England" in 1856. "The old puritan feeling prevents Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11E Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery church doors and assembled in force to celebrate the anniversary of the Savior's birth".
Controversy and criticism
Main article: Christmas controversy
In the private sphere also, it has been alleged that any specific mention of the term "Christmas" or its religious aspects was being increasingly censored, avoided, or discouraged by a number of advertisers and retailers. Sony VGN-NR11Z/S Battery
See also: Christmas by medium, Christmas tree production, Christmas tree cultivation, and Christmas Price IndexSony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery
Christmas market in Metz, France.
jewelry stores. In the same year employment in American retail stores rose from 1.6 million to 1.8 million in the two months leading up to Christmas. Industries completely dependent on Christmas include Christmas cards, ofSony VAIO VGN-NR21S/T Battery which 1.9 billion are sent in the United States each year, and live Christmas Trees, of which 20.8 million were cut in the USA in 2002. In the UK in 2010, up to 8 billion was expected to be spent online at Christmas, approximately a quarter of total retail festive sales. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M Battery
In most Western nations, Christmas Day is the least active day of the year for business and commerce; almost all retail, commercial and institutional businesses are closed, and almost all industries cease activity (more than any Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S Battery