The Republic of Equatorial Guinea
Posted April 26th, 2012 at 01:30am
Equatorial Guinea, officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea is a country located in Middle Africa. It has two parts: a Continental Region (Río Muni), including several small offshore islands including Corisco, Elobey Grande and Elobey Chico; and an insular region containing Annobón island and Bioko island (formerly Fernando Po) where the capital Malabo is situated. HP G62-120SS battery
Annobón is the southernmost island of Equatorial Guinea and is situated just south of the equator. Bioko island is the northernmost point of Equatorial Guinea. Between the two islands and to the east is the mainland region. HP G62-120SS battery
Equatorial Guinea is bordered by Cameroon on the north, Gabon on the south and east, and the Gulf of Guinea on the west, where the island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located between Bioko and Annobón. HP Pavilion DV6-1246EO battery
Formerly the colony of Spanish Guinea, its post-independence name is suggestive of its location near both the equator and the Gulf of Guinea. Besides the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the Mediterranean coast next to Morocco, it is the only territory in mainland Africa with Spanish as the official language. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery
With an area of 28,000 square kilometres (11,000 sq mi) Equatorial Guinea is one of the smallest countries in continental Africa. It is also the richest per capita; however, the wealth is distributed very unevenly, with 70% of the population living under the United Nations Poverty Threshold of $2/day. Sony VGP-BPL7 battery
With a population of 650,702, Equatorial Guinea is the third-smallest country in continental Africa. It is also the second smallest United Nations (UN) member from continental Africa.
The discovery of sizeable petroleum reserves in recent years is altering the economic and political status of the country. HP F2299A battery
Its gross domestic product (GDP) per capita ranks 28th in the world; however, most of the country's considerable oil wealth actually lies in the hands of only a few people.
Equatorial Guinea has one of the worst human rights records in the world, HSTNN-LB51 battery
consistently ranking among the "worst of the worst" in Freedom House's annual survey of political and civil rights and Reporters Without Borders ranks President Obiang among its "predators" of press freedom. Out of 44 sub-Saharan countries, Equatorial Guinea ranks 9th highest in the Human Development Index (HDI) and 115th overall, which is among the medium HDI countries. Sony VGN-AW11XU/Q battery
Equatorial Guinea is located in west central Africa. The country consists of a mainland territory, Río Muni, which is bordered by Cameroon to the north and Gabon to the east and south and five small islands, Bioko, Corisco,Annobón, Small Elobey and Great Elobey. HP 446506-001 battery
Bioko, the site of the capital, Malabo, lies about 40 kilometers (25 mi) off the coast of Cameroon. Annobón island is about 350 kilometers (220 mi) west-south-west of Cape Lopez in Gabon. Corisco and the two Elobey islands are in Corisco Bay, on the border of Río Muni and Gabon.
Equatorial Guinea lies between latitudes 4°N and 2°S, and longitudes 5° and 12°E. HP Pavilion DV4-1365DX battery
Despite its name, no part of the country's territory lies on the equator – it is entirely in the northern hemisphere, except for the insularAnnobón Province which is about 155 km south of the equator.
Equatorial Guinea spans several ecoregions. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ190N/BC battery
Río Muni region lies within the Atlantic Equatorial coastal forestsecoregion except for patches of Central African mangroves on the coast, especially in the Muni River estuary. TheCross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests ecoregion covers most of Bioko and as well as the adjacent portions of Cameroonand Nigeria on the African mainland, Sony VAIO VGN-Z31WN/B battery
and the Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests ecoregion covers the highlands of Bioko and nearby Mount Cameroon.
The São Tomé, Príncipe, and Annobón moist lowland forests ecoregion covers all of Annobón, as well as São Tomé and Príncipe.HP Pavilion DV6-1215EE battery
Equatorial Guinea has a tropical climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. From June to August, Río Muni is dry and Bioko wet; from December to February, the reverse occurs. In between there is gradual transition. Sony VGP-BPS22/A Battery
Rain or mist occurs daily on Annobón, where a cloudless day has never been registered. The temperature at Malabo, Bioko, ranges from 16 °C (61 °F) to 33 °C (91 °F), though on the southern Moka Plateau normal high temperatures are only21 °C (70 °F). In Río Muni, the average temperature is about 27 °C (81 °F). HP Pavilion DV4T-1400 CTO battery
Annual rainfall varies from 1,930 mm (76 in) at Malabo to 10,920 mm (430 in) at Ureka, Bioko, but Río Muni is somewhat drier.
In the continental region that is now Equatorial Guinea there are believed to have been pygmies, of whom only isolated pockets remain in southern Río Muni. HP Pavilion DV6-1232ET battery
Bantumigrations between the 18th and 20th centuries brought the coastal tribes and later the Fang. Elements of the latter may have generated the Bubi, who emigrated toBioko from Cameroon and Rio Muni in several waves and succeeded former Neolithic populations. Sony VAIO VPCEB19GX battery
The Annobón population, native to Angola, was introduced by the Portuguese via São Tomé island (São Tomé and Príncipe).
The Portuguese explorer Fernão do Pó, seeking a path to India, is credited as being the first European to discover the island of Bioko in 1472. Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/P battery
He called it Formosa("Beautiful"), but it quickly took on the name of its European discoverer. The islands of Fernando Pó and Annobón were colonized by Portugal in 1474.
In 1778, the island, adjacent islets, and commercial rights to the mainland between the Niger and Ogoue Rivers were ceded to Spain in exchange for territory in the American continent (Treaty of El Pardo, between Queen Maria I of Portugal and King Charles III of Spain). HP Pavilion DV6-1240EI battery
Between 1778 and 1810, the territory of Equatorial Guinea depended administratively on the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with seat in Buenos Aires.
From 1827 to 1843, the United Kingdom established a base on the island to combat the slave trade, which was then moved to Sierra Leone upon agreement with Spain in 1843. HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51 battery
In 1844, on restoration of Spanish sovereignty, it became known as the Territorios Españoles del Golfo de Guinea Ecuatorial. The mainland portion, Rio Muni, became a protectorate in 1885 and a colony in 1900. Conflicting claims to the mainland were settled by the Treaty of Paris in 1900, HP Pavilion DV4-1211TU battery
and periodically, the mainland territories were united administratively under Spanish rule. Between 1926 and 1959 they were united as the colony of Spanish Guinea.
In September 1968, Francisco Macías Nguema was elected first president of Equatorial Guinea, and independence was recognised on 12 October 1968. Lenovo S10-2 battery
In July 1970, Nguema created a single-party state. Nguema’s reign of terror led to the death or exile of up to 1/3 of the country's population. Out of a population of 300,000, an estimated 80,000 had been killed.The economy collapsed, and skilled citizens and foreigners left. Apple MacBook Pro Battery
Teodoro Obiang deposed Francisco Macías Nguema on 3 August 1979, in a bloody coup d'état.
In 2011 the government announced it was planning a new capital in the country, named Djibloho.
The current president of Equatorial Guinea is Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo. Dell Inspiron N5010 Battery
The 1982 constitution of Equatorial Guinea, written following the 1979 deposition of dictator Francisco Macías Nguema and with help from the UN, gives the presidency extensive powers, including naming and dismissing members of the cabinet, making laws by decree, Sony Vaio P Battery
dissolving the Chamber of Representatives, negotiating and ratifying treaties and serving as commander in chief of the armed forces. The Prime Minister, Ignacio Milam Tang is appointed by the President and operates under powers designated by the President. Dell Inspiron 1564 Battery
On Christmas 1975, Macías had 150 alleged coup plotters executed to the sound of a band playing Mary Hopkin's tuneThose Were the Days in a national stadium. It is estimated that 100,000 people (approximately one-third of the population) were killed or fled into exile during Macías' reign. Lenovo S10-3 Battery
President Obiang overthrew previous dictator Francisco Macías Nguema on 3 August 1979 in a bloody coup d'état. Since August 1979 some 12 real and perceived unsuccessful coup attempts have occurred. The 'real' coup attempts were often perpetrated in an attempt by rival elites to seize the state's economic resources. HP 530 Battery
Under President Obiang, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, in April 2006, to establish a Social Development Fund in the country, implementing projects in the areas of health, education, women's affairs and the environment. Samsung R522 Battery
Since 2005, MPRI, a U.S. based international policing consulting company, has worked in Equatorial Guinea to train police forces in appropriate human rights practices. In February 2010, Equatorial Guinea signed a contract with the MPRI subsidiary of the US defense corporation, L3 Communications for coastal surveillance and maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea. Dell Latitude D630 Battery
Although President Obiang signed a national anti-torture decree in 2006 to ban all forms of abuse and improper treatment in Equatorial Guinea and commissioned the renovation and modernization of Black Beach prison in 2007 to ensure the humane treatment of prisoners, Acer Aspire 5515 Battery
human rights abuses continue. Human Rights Watch andAmnesty International among other non-governmental organizations have documented severe human rights abuses in prisons, including torture, beatings, unexplained deaths and illegal detention.
Under President Obiang, the basic infrastructure of Equatorial Guinea has also improved. Dell Studio 1735 Battery
Asphalt now covers more than 80% of the national roads and ports and airports are being built across the entire country. Progress of this increase in infrastructure was confirmed in October 2011 when a British parliamentary delegation and press entourage toured the country as guests of the president. Toshiba Portege R200 Battery
However, despite all the new infrastructure there were very few of its citizens who seemed to have access to it, with reports of empty three lane highways and many empty buildings during the course of the tour according to a journalist who represented The Guardian newspaper who formed part of the press entourage. Dell Vostro 1710 Battery
According to a March 2004 BBC profile, politics within the country are currently dominated by tensions between Obiang's son, Teodorin, and other close relatives with powerful positions in the security forces. The tension may be rooted in power shift arising from the dramatic increase in oil production which has occurred since 1997. Hp Pavilion dv3-1000 Battery
A November 2004 report named Mark Thatcher as a financial backer of a 2004 Equatorial Guinea coup d'état attempt to topple Obiang, organized by Simon Mann. Various accounts also name the United Kingdom's MI6, the United States' CIA, and Spain as having been tacit supporters of the coup attempt. HP Pavilion DV7-1261WM battery
Nevertheless, theAmnesty International report released in June 2005 on the ensuing trial of those allegedly involved highlighted the prosecution's failure to produce conclusive evidence that a coup attempt had actually taken place.
Simon Mann was released from prison on 3 November 2009 for humanitarian reasons. HP Pavilion DV6-1299EA battery
The presidential decree pardoning Mann from prison cites concerns about his physical health and the need for him to receive ongoing care in his home country.
President Obiang was re-elected to serve an additional term in 2009 in an election deemed by the African Union as “in line with electoral law”. hp g6000 battery
The President reappointed Prime Minister Ignacio Milam Tang and installed a new government in Equatorial Guinea on 12 January 2010.
The new government is dedicated to strengthening the “cooperation and friendship” with the Barack Obama administration. HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery
During a meeting on the sidelines of the recent United Nations General Assembly, President Obiang urged President Obama to institute a U.S–Africa summit, to strengthen the cooperation between the United States and Africa.
Pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings. Compaq Presario CQ71 battery
On 1 January 1985, the country became the first non-Francophone African member of the franc zone, adopting the CFA as its currency. The national currency, the ekwele, was previously linked to the Spanish peseta.
The discovery of large oil reserves in 1996 and its subsequent exploitation have contributed to a dramatic increase in government revenue. HP Pavilion DV7-1120EO battery
As of 2004, Equatorial Guinea is the third-largest oil producer in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its oil production has risen to 360,000 barrels per day (57,000 m3/d), up from 220,000 only two years earlier.
Forestry, farming, and fishing are also major components of GDP. Sony VAIO VGN-FW160D battery
Subsistence farming predominates. The deterioration of the rural economy under successive brutal regimes has diminished any potential for agriculture-led growth.
In July 2004, the United States Senate published an investigation into Riggs Bank, a Washington-based bank into which most of Equatorial Guinea's oil revenues were paid until recently, and which also banked for Chile's Augusto Pinochet. HP Pavilion DV4-1220US battery
The Senate report, as to Equatorial Guinea, showed that at least $35 million were siphoned off by Obiang, his family and senior officials of his regime. The president has denied any wrongdoing. While Riggs Bank in February 2005 paid $9 million as restitution for its banking for Chile's Augusto Pinochet, no restitution was made with regard to Equatorial Guinea, Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/P battery
as reported in detail in an Anti-Money Laundering Report from Inner City Press.
Equatorial Guinea is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).
Equatorial Guinea tried to become validated as an Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)–compliant country, HP Compaq 491278-001 battery
working toward transparency in reporting of oil revenues and the prudent use of natural resource wealth. The country was one of 30 candidate countries and obtained candidate status 22 February 2008. It was then required to meet a number of obligations to do so, including committing to working with civil society and companies on EITI implementation, HP Compaq 464119-143 battery
appointing a senior individual to lead on EITI implementation, and publishing a fully costed Work Plan with measurable targets, a timetable for implementation and an assessment of capacity constraints. However, when Equatorial Guinea applied to extend the deadline for completing EITI validation, the EITI Board did not agree to grant Equatorial Guinea an extension. HP Compaq Business Notebook 6530B battery
The majority of the people of Equatorial Guinea are of Bantu origin. The largest tribe, the Fang, is indigenous to the mainland, but substantial migration to Bioko Island has resulted in the Fang population exceeding that of the earlier Bantu inhabitants. Sony VAIO VGN-TZ285N/RC battery
The Fang constitute 80% of the population and comprise 67 clans. Those in the northern part of Rio Muni speak Fang-Ntumu, while those in the south speak Fang-Okah; the two dialects have differences but are mutually intelligible. Dialects of Fang are also spoken in parts of neighboring Cameroon (Bulu) and Gabon. HP 540 battery
These dialects, while still intelligible, are more distinct. The Bulu Fang of Cameroon were traditional rivals of Fang in Rio Muni. The Bubi, who constitute 15% of the population, are indigenous to Bioko Island. The traditional demarcation line between Fang and beach tribes was the village of Niefang (limit of the Fang) inland from Bata. Sony VAIO VPCW119XJ/P battery
In addition, there are coastal tribes, sometimes referred to as Ndowe or "Playeros" (Beach People in Spanish): Combes, Bujebas,Balengues, and Bengas on the mainland and small islands, and Fernandinos, a Krio community on Bioko Island. Together, these groups compose 5% of the population. HP Pavilion DV8 battery
Some Europeans (largely of Spanish or Portuguese descent) – among them mixed with African ethnicity – also live in the nation. Most Spaniards left after independence. There is a growing number of foreigners from neighboring Cameroon, Nigeria, and Gabon. Equatorial Guinea received Asians and black Africans from other countries as workers on cocoa and coffee plantations. Sony VAIO VGN-AR95S battery
Other black Africans came from Liberia, Angola, andMozambique. Most of the Asian population is Chinese, with small numbers of Indians.
Equatorial Guinea also allowed many fortune-seeking European settlers of other nationalities, including British, French and Germans. Sony VAIO VPCW12S1E/P battery
There is also a group of Israelis, and Moroccans. After independence, thousands of Equatorial Guineans went to Spain. Another 100,000 Equatorial Guineans went to Cameroon, Gabon, and Nigeria because of the dictatorship of Francisco Macías Nguema. HP Pavilion DV6000 battery
Some Equatorial Guinean communities are also to be found in Latin America, the United States, Portugal, and France. Oil extraction has contributed to a doubling of the population in Malabo.
The principal religion in Equatorial Guinea is Christianity which is the faith of 93% of the population. HP Compaq KU532AA battery
These are predominately Roman Catholic (87%) while a minority are Protestants (5%). Another 5% of the population follow indigenous beliefs and the final 2% comprises Muslims, Bahá'í Faith, and other beliefs.
The official languages are Spanish (for the local variety see Equatoguinean Spanish), French, and Portuguese. Sony VAIO VPCEB16FX/W battery
However, the government's official homepage states that: "Spanish is the official administrative language and that of education. French is the second official language and nearly all the ethnic groups speak the languages referred to as Bantu." Sony VAIO VPCEB17FX/L battery
Indigenous languages include Fang, Bube, Benga, Pichinglis, Ndowe, Balengue, Bujeba, Bissio, Gumu, and a nearly extinct Baseke) and others, as well as Annobonese language (Fá d'Ambô) a Portuguese creole, and Fernando Poo Creole English. HP Pavilion DV6-1240EO battery
English and German are also studied as foreign languages.
Aboriginal languages are recognized as integral parts of the "national culture" (Constitutional Law No. 1/1998 January 21). The great majority of Equatorial Guineans speak Spanish, especially those living in the capital, Malabo. Spanish has been an official language since 1844. Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/L battery
Some media reported that in October 2011, the Constitutional Law that amends article four of the Constitution of Equatorial Guinea was enacted by Chamber of People's Representatives. This Constitutional Law established the third official language of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea – Portuguese (by that time only the Spanish and French had official status). Sony VAIO VGN-G2AAPS battery
This was in an effort by the government to improve its communications, trade, and bilateral relations with Portuguese-speaking countries. The adoption of Portuguese followed the announcement in 13 July 2007, by President Teodoro Obiang Nguema of his government's decision for Portugueseto become Equatorial Guinea's third official language, Sony VAIO VGN-NS70B/W battery
in order to meet one of the requirements to apply for full membership in the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), the other one being political reforms allowing for effective democracy and the respect for human rights. Sony VGP-BPS21B battery
This upgrading from its current Associate Observer condition would result in Equatorial Guinea being able to access several professional and academic exchange programs and the facilitation of cross-border circulation of citizens. Sony VAIO VGN-Z56GG/B battery
Its application for membership of the CPLP is currently being assessed by the organisations' members. According to draft of the Constitutional Law: “This Constitutional Law will go into effect twenty days from its publication in the Official State Gazette”. In October 2011, the national parliament was discussing this law. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z battery
So far no official confirmation of approving the decree by the Parliament nor published it in the Official State Gazette. Moreover official Equatorial Guinean sources, do not treat Portuguese as an official language yet. HP Pavilion DV7-1120EO battery
In February 2012, Equatorial Guinea's foreign minister signed an agreement with the IILP (Instituto Internacional de Língua Portuguesa) on the promotion of Portuguese in Equatorial Guinea. 
In June 1984, the First Hispanic-African Cultural Congress was convened to explore the cultural identity of Equatorial Guinea. HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA battery
The congress constituted the center of integration and the marriage of the Hispanic culture with African cultures.
Under the regime of Francisco Macias, education had been significantly neglected with few children receiving any type of education. HP Mini 311-1110TU battery
Under President Obiang, the illiteracy rate dropped from 73 percent to 13 percent  and the number of primary school students has risen from 65,000 in 1986 to more than 100,000 in 1994. Education is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 14. Compaq Presario V2335US battery
The Equatorial Guinea government has also partnered with Hess Corporation and The Academy for Educational Development (AED) to establish a $20 million education program through which primary school teachers participate in a training program to teach modern child development techniques. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11E battery
There are now 51 Model Schools, one for every state. It is hoped the active pedagogy in the Model Schools will be a national reform.
In recent years, with change in economic/political climate and government social agendas, several cultural dispersion and literacy organizations are now located in the country, HP Pavilion DV1635LA battery
founded chiefly with the financial support of the Spanish government. The country has one university, the Universidad Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial(UNGE) with a campus in Malabo and a Faculty of Medicine located in Bata on the mainland. In 2009 the university produced the first 110 national doctors. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11E battery
The Bata Medical School is supported principally by the government of Cuba and staffed by Cuban medical educators and physicians, however, it is predicted that Equatorial Guinea will have enough national doctors in the country to be self-sufficient within the next five years. Sony VAIO VGN-NS10J/S battery
Equatorial Guinea’s innovative malaria control programs have had a remarkable impact on malaria infection, disease, and mortality in the population. Their program consists of twice-yearly indoor residual spraying (IRS), HP Pavilion DV6-1200SL battery
the introduction of artemisinin combination treatment (ACTs), the use of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women (IPTp) and the introduction of very high coverage with long-lasting insecticide treated mosquito nets (LLINs). Sony VAIO VPCEB12FX/T battery
The result of their efforts resulted in a reduction in all-cause under-five mortality from 152 to 55 deaths per 1,000 live births (down 64%); and the drop occurred rapidly and timed directly with the beginning of the program. HP HSTNN-LB31 battery
Every airline registered in the country appears on the list of air carriers prohibited in the European Union (EU) which means that they are banned for safety reasons from operating services of any kind within the EU. HP 593553-001 battery
Due to the large oil presence in the country, internationally recognised carriers fly to Malabo (Bioko).
The principal means of communication within the country are three state-operated FM radio stations; there are also five shortwave radio stations. HP Pavilion DV5-1110EM battery
There are two newspapers and two magazines. Television Nacional, the television network, is state operated. The international TV programme RTVGE is available via satellites in Africa, Europa, and the Americas and worldwide via Internet.
Most of the media companies practice heavy self-censorship, and are banned by law from criticising public figures. HP 436426-752 battery
The state-owned media and the main private radio station are under the directorship of Teodorin Nguema Obiang, the president's son.
Landline telephone penetration is low, with only two lines available for every 100 persons. There is one GSM mobile telephone operator, Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560N24 battery
with coverage of Malabo,Bata, and several mainland cities. As of 2009, approximately forty percent of the population subscribed to mobile telephone services. The only telephone provider in Equatorial Guinea is Orange.
Equatorial Guinea has nine (as of 2009) Internet service providers, which serve more than 8,000 users. HP Compaq 451086-661 battery
Equatorial Guinea has been chosen to co-host the 2012 African Cup of Nations in partnership with Gabon. The Equatorial Guinea won their first game against Libya 1-0 in group A. The country was also chosen to host the 2008 Women's African Football Championship, which they won. Compaq Presario C740EM battery
The Women's National Team qualified for the 2011 World Cup in Germany.
Equatorial Guinea is famous for the national swimming champion Eric Moussambani, nicknamed "Eric the Eel".HP 448007-001 battery
Frederick Forsyth's 1974 novel The Dogs of War is set in the fictional platinum-rich 'Republic of Zangaro', which is based on Equatorial Guinea. There is also a 1981 film adaptation of the book, also called The Dogs of War. HP Pavilion DV7 battery
Fernando Po (now Bioko) is featured prominently in the 1975 science fiction work The Illuminatus! Trilogy by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson. The island (and, in turn, the country) experience a series of coups in the story which lead the world to the verge of nuclear war. HP DV6-1120SA battery
The story also hypothesizes that Fernando Po is the last remaining piece of the sunken continent of Atlantis.
Most of the action in the American novelist Robin Cook's book, Chromosome 6, takes place at a primate research facility based in Equatorial Guinea due to the country's permissive laws. HP DV6-1210SA battery
The book also discusses some of the geography, history, and peoples of the country.
Episode 2 of the British sitcom Yes Minister, "The Official Visit", situates the fictional lesser developed country of Buranda in what is actually Equatorial Guinea.
In the 2009 novel Limit by Frank Schätzing, which takes place in 2025, the country's history (and future history) plays a significant role in the plot. Compaq CQ50 battery
The Republic of Equatorial Guinea is located in west central Africa. Bioko Island lies about 40 kilometers (24.9 mi) from Cameroon. Annobón Island lies about 595 kilometres (370 mi) southwest of Bioko Island. The larger continental region of Rio Muni lies between Cameroon and Gabon on the mainland; HP Pavilion DV8 battery
it includes the islands of Corisco, Elobey Grande,Elobey Chico, and adjacent islets.
Bioko Island, called Fernando Po until the 1970s, is the largest island in the Gulf of Guinea - 2,017 square kilometers (779 sq mi). It is shaped like a boot, with two large volcanic formations separated by a valley that bisects the island at its narrowest point.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery
The 195-kilometer (121 mi) coastline is steep and rugged in the south but lower and more accessible in the north, with excellent harbors at Malabo and Luba, and several scenic beaches between those towns.
On the continent, Rio Muni covers 26,003 square kilometers (10,040 sq mi). HP DV9700 battery
The coastal plain gives way to a succession of valleys separated by low hills and spurs of the Crystal Mountains. The Rio Benito (Mbini) which divides Rio Muni in half, is unnavigable except for a 20-kilometer stretch at its estuary. Temperatures and humidity in Rio Muni are generally lower than on Bioko Island. Compaq CQ35-100 battery
Annobon Island, named for its discovery on New Year's Day 1472, is a small volcanic island covering 18 square kilometers (6.9 sq mi). The coastline is abrupt except in the north; the principal volcanic cone contains a small lake. Most of the estimated 1,900 inhabitants are fisherman specializing in traditional, smallscale tuna fishing and whaling. Sony VGP-BPS11 battery
The climate is tropical—heavy rainfall, high humidity, and frequent seasonal changes with violent windstorms.
Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon.
The climate of both the continental region and the islands is typically equatorial, with high temperatures, HP 448007-001 battery
heavy rainfall, and much cloud cover most of the year. Local variations are due to differences in altitude and proximity to the sea. The wet seasons in the continental region are from February to June and from September to December. Rainfall is higher on the coast than inland. HP Pavilion DV7 battery
In Bata the rainiest months are September, October, and November, with rainfall averaging more than 94 in (2,388 mm) a year. At Calatrava, farther south on the coast, it sometimes reaches 180 in (4,572 mm). Inland, however, rainfall diminishes; Mikomeseng, for example, receives only about 58 in (1,473 mm). HP DV6-1120SA battery
The average annual temperature is about 79 °F (26.1 °C) and is fairly constant throughout the year. The temperature maxima are somewhat lower than in Bioko. The relative humidity, however, is higher than in Bioko. Bioko has a rather debilitating climate. The so-called dry season lasts from November to March, and the rest of the year is rainy. HP DV6-1210SA battery
The average annual temperature of about 77 °F (25 °C) varies little throughout the year. Afternoon temperatures reach the high 80s °F (low 30s °C) and drop to only about 70 °F (21.1 °C) at night. Most of the time the sky is cloudy and overcast. Extreme rainfall occurs in the south, with rain brought by monsoon winds amounting to about 450 in (11,430 mm) a year around San Antonio de Ureca. Compaq CQ50 battery
Coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
Irrigated land: NA km²
Natural hazards: violent windstorms, flash floods
Environment - current issues: tap water is not potable; desertificationHP Pavilion DV8 battery
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: insular and continental regions rather widely separated Sony VGP-BPS13 battery
The first inhabitants of the region that is now Equatorial Guinea are believed to have been Pygmies, of whom only isolated pockets remain in northern Rio Muni. Bantumigrations between the 17th and 19th centuries brought the coastal tribes and later the Fang.HP DV9700 battery
Elements of the latter may have generated the Bubi, who emigrated to Bioko from Cameroon and Río Muni in several waves and succeeded former Neolithic populations. It is said the Igbo of Nigeria (mostly Aro) slave traders arrived and founded very few tiny settlements in Bioko and Rio Muni which expanded the Aro Confederacy in the 18th and 19th centuries. Compaq CQ35-100 battery
The Annobón population, native to Angola, was introduced by the Portuguese via São Tomé.
The Portuguese explorer, Fernão do Pó, seeking a route to India, is credited with having discovered the island of Bioko in 1471. He called it Formosa ("beautiful [isle]", a name later applied to Taiwan), HP G62-228CL Battery
but it quickly took on the name of its European discoverer, albeit spelt "Fernando Po". The islands of Fernando Po andAnnobón were colonized by the Portuguese in 1474. The Portuguese retained control until 1778, when the island, adjacent islets, HP G62-229WM Battery
and commercial rights to the mainland between the Niger and Ogooué Rivers were ceded to Spain in exchange for territory in South America (Treaty of El Pardo).
From 1827 to 1843, Britain established a base on the island to combat the slave trade. The mainland portion, Río Muni, became a protectorate in 1885 and a colony in 1900. HP G62-251TU Battery
Conflicting claims to the mainland were settled in 1900 by the Treaty of Paris, and periodically, the mainland territories were united administratively under Spanish rule. Between 1926 and 1959 they were united as the colony of Spanish Guinea. During the First World War, German troops retreated into this territory fromKamerun because Spain was neutral during the war. HP G62-251XX Battery