The decline of the Maravi Empire
Posted May 02nd, 2012 at 01:49am
The decline of the Maravi Empire resulted from the entrance of two powerful groups into the region of Malawi. In the 19th century, the Angoni or Ngoni people and their chief Zwangendaba arrived from the Natal region of modern day South Africa. HP Pavilion DV9735EL Battery
The Angoni were part of a great migration, known as the mfecane, of people fleeing from the head of the Zulu Empire, Shaka Zulu. The Ngoni people settled mostly in what is modern day central Malawi; particularly Ntcheu and parts of Dedza districts. However, some groups proceeded north; entering Tanzania and settling around Lake Victoria. HP Pavilion DV9735ES Battery
But splinter groups broke off and headed back south; settling in modern day northern Malawi, particularly Mzimba district where they mixed with another migrant group coming from across Lake Malawi called the Bawoloka. Clearly, themfecane had a significant impact on Southern Africa. HP Pavilion DV9735TX Battery
The Angoni adopted Shaka's military tactics to subdue the lesser tribes, including the Maravi, they found along their way. Staging from rocky areas, the Ngoni impis would raid the Chewa (also called Achewa) and plunder food, oxen and women. HP Pavilion DV9736CA Battery
Young men were drawn in as new fighting forces while older men were reduced to domestic slaves and/or disposed off to Arab slave traders operating from the Lake Malawi regions.
The second group to take power around this time were the Ayao (or Yao). HP Pavilion DV9736TX Battery
The Yao came to Malawi from northern Mozambique to escape famine and conflict with the Makuatribe. The Makua tribe had become enemies of the Yao because of the wealth the Yao were amassing through trading ivory and slaves to Arabs from Zanzibar. The Yao, upon migrating to Malawi, soon began attacking both the Achewa and Angoni people to capture prisoners who they later sold as slaves. HP Pavilion DV9737EF Battery
The Yao were the first, and for a long while, the only group to use firearms in conflict with other tribes. The Yao ruling class chose in 1870 to follow Islam like their Arab trading partners rather than the traditional animism. HP Pavilion DV9737TX Battery
As a benefit of their conversion, the Yao were provided with sheikhs who promoted literacy and founded mosques. The Arab traders also introduced the cultivation of rice, which became a major crop in the lake region.
The Arabs and their Swahili allies
Using their strong partnership with the Yao, HP Pavilion DV9738ES Battery
the Arab traders set up several trading posts along the shore of Lake Malawi. The largest of these posts was founded in 1840 at Nkhotakota by an Arabic trader from the coast, Jumbe Salim Bin Abdalla. During the height of his power, Jumbe transported between 5,000 and 20,000 slaves through Nkhotakota annually. HP Pavilion DV9738TX Battery
From Nkhotakota, the slaves were transported in caravans of no less than 500 slaves to the small island of Kilwa Kisiwani off the coast of modern day Tanzania. The founding of these various posts effectively shifted the slave trade in Malawi from the Portuguese in Mozambique to the Arabs of Zanzibar. HP Pavilion DV9739EF Battery
Although the Yao and the Angoni continually clashed with each other, neither was able to win a decisive victory. The remaining members of the Maravi Empire, however, were nearly wiped out in attacks from both sides. Some Achewa chiefs saved themselves by creating alliances with the Swahili people who were allied with the Arab slave traders. HP Pavilion DV9739TX Battery
The Lomwe of Malawi
The Lomwe of Malawi are a recent introduction having arrived as late as 1914, during the first World War. The Lomwe came from a hill in Mozambique called uLomwe, north of the Zambezi River and south east of Lake Chilwa in Malawi. HP Pavilion DV9740CA Battery
Theirs was also a story of hunger largely instigated by the Portuguese settlers moving into the neighbourhoods of uLomwe. To escape from the ill-treatment (including the Portuguese physically pounding to death live infants in wooden mortars to extract local allegiance), the Lomwe headed north and entered Malawi through the southern tip of lake Chilwa; HP Pavilion DV9740EA Battery
settling in Phalombe and Mulanje areas. In Mulanje they found gainful employment on teas estates that various British companies were establishing on the foothills of Mount Mulanje. Later they spread into Thyolo [again getting employment on tea estates] and Chiradzulu. HP Pavilion DV9723CA Battery
The Lomwe readily mixed with the local Manga'nja tribes, as there are no reported cases of tribal conflict. Indeed, the tribal network with the Manga'nja was very good so that when John Chilembwe, the revolutionary clergyman, ran foul with the British planters at Nguludi in Chiradzulu, he used this network to escape towards Mozambique. HP Pavilion DV9723CL Battery
Unfortunately, the British terrirotial forces caught up with him before he could cross the border.
European explorers, missionaries and traders
After the Portuguese arrival in the area in the 16th century, the next significant Western contact was the arrival of David Livingstone along the shore of Lake Malawi in 1859. HP Pavilion DV9723TX Battery
Subsequently, Scottish Presbyterian churches established missions in Malawi, such as the one in Blantyre founded in 1876. One of their objectives was to end the slave trade to the Persian Gulf that continued until the end of the 19th century. In 1878, a number of traders, mostly from Glasgow, HP Pavilion DV9724CA Battery
formed the African Lakes Companyto supply goods and services to the missionaries. Other missionaries, traders, hunters, and planters soon followed.
The independence struggle
The history of Nyasaland was marked by a number of unsuccessful Malawian attempts to obtain independence. HP Pavilion DV9724TX Battery
A growing European and United States-educated African elite. This included John Chilembwe; taken and educated in the USA by a missionary family. Later he returned to Nyasaland to resist the British practices of 'recruiting' African men into the Kings African Rifles (KAR) as forced labor and carriers. HP Pavilion DV9725EF Battery
After John Chilembwe's tragic death other more vocal and politically active groups-first through associations-emerged. In 1944, the Nyasaland African Congress (NAC), inspired by the African National Congress [South Africa] Peace Charter of 1914, emerged.HP Pavilion DV9725TX Battery
NAC soon spread across Southern African with powerful branches emerging among migrant Malawian workers in Salisbury (now Harare) inRhodesia and Lusaka, in Zambia. When the cash strapped NAC Executive Council voted to send a team to London to persuade Dr. Banda to return to Malawi and lead the movement, HP Pavilion DV9726TX Battery
the powerful Salisbury Branch raised the funds required for the two men, Masauko Chipembere and Harry Bwanausi, to make the boat trip to England. They finally rendezvous with Dr. Banda at the Port of Liverpool (on his way from Ghana) to sort out the mess in his private life over the former Mrs. French. HP Pavilion DV9727CL Battery
Banda agreed to return to Malawi whereupon the team returned to Nyasaland. However, it would be months before Dr. Banda's whereabouts could be known leading to his scheduled arrival at Chileka Airport in 1958 being postponed twice; HP Pavilion DV9727EF Battery
causing the local white Police to forcefully remove 'disappointed' crowds that had threatened to storm theBOAC flight, inside of which they had believed Dr. Banda was being held hostage! Finally Dr. Banda arrived in Nyasaland on 6 July 1958 and proceeded to cause a storm and a shiver among the local British settlers with his powerful speeches and demand that the 'Stupid Federation' be abandoned 'Now! Now! Now!' HP Pavilion DV9727TX Battery
His trips across the country attracted large crowds of Africans and the country was in a state of turmoil. However, the British weathered some of his vociferous talk and Dr. Banda gradually settled for a long slog by opening a medical surgery in Limbe where, to thank John Kadzamira (one of the main organizers of the Harare NAC Branch), HP Pavilion DV9727US Battery
Dr. Banda dutifully took in Cecilia Kadzamira (a newly trained nurse from Salisbury Hospital) as his first nursing staff member! To control the volatile political situation Dr. Banda created, through an emotive public speech (while suffering from a rare bout of malaria): that the British intended his death, the Federation Government arrested Dr. Banda and sent him to Gwelo in Rhodesia.HP Pavilion DV9728CA Battery
It took a different kind of tinder to ignite the struggle for political independence in Malawi. Alec Russell says: '...for the many colorful episodes in Banda's rise to power..[one can be attributed to the] tale of 'the bruising of Miss Phombeya's toe' [Alec Russell - Big Men, Little People]. HP Pavilion DV9728CL Battery
She was a young woman who came to theRyall's Hotel in Blantyre, where Harold Macmillan was lunching on the homeward leg of his famous 'wind of change' tour in Cape Town. A junior officer in Macmillan's advance entourage owed Miss Phombeya some money for 'services rendered'. HP Pavilion DV9728TX Battery
But instead of paying up, local police officers panicked and tried to get rid of Miss Phombeya (now visibly parading her anger in front of the verandah restaurant) in the process hurting her toe; whereupon a crowd soon gathered outside Ryall's Hotel HP Pavilion DV9729TX Battery
and quickly the mood shifted from the 'hurting toe' to protesting the imprisonment of Banda and other local leaders by the federation government.
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
During the 1950s, pressure for independence increased when Nyasaland was joined with Northern and Southern Rhodesia in 1953 to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. HP Pavilion DV9730CA Battery
In July 1958, Dr Hastings Kamuzu Banda returned to the country after a long absence in the United States (where he had obtained his medical degree atMeharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee in 1937), the United Kingdom (where he practised medicine), and Ghana. He assumed leadership of the NAC, which later became the Malawi Congress Party (MCP). HP Pavilion DV9730EB Battery
In 1959, Banda was sent to Gwelo Prison for his political activities but was released in 1960 to participate in a constitutional conference in London.
On 15 April 1961, the MCP won an overwhelming victory in elections for a new Legislative Council. HP Pavilion DV9730EF Battery
It also gained an important role in the new Executive Council and ruled Nyasaland in all but name a year later. In a second constitutional conference in London in November 1962, the British Government agreed to give Nyasaland self-governing status the following year.
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was dissolved on 31 December 1963. HP Pavilion DV9730EI Battery
Self-governing status for Nyasaland
Hastings Banda became Prime Minister on 1 February 1963, although the British still controlled the country's financial, security, and judicial systems. A new constitution took effect in May 1963, providing for virtually complete internal self-government. HP Pavilion DV9730EP Battery
Malawi became a fully independent member of the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth) on 6 July 1964. Two years later, Malawi adopted a republican constitution and became a one-party state with Hastings Banda as its first president. HP Pavilion DV9730ET Battery
In 1970 Hastings Banda was declared President for life of the MCP, and in 1971 Banda consolidated his power and was named President for life of Malawi itself. The paramilitary wing of the Malawi Congress Party, the Young Pioneers, helped keep Malawi under authoritarian control until the 1990s. HP Pavilion DV9730EV Battery
Banda, who was always referred to as "His Excellency the Life President Ngwazi Dr. H. Kamuzu Banda", was a dictator. Allegiance to him was enforced at every level. Every business building was required to have an official picture of Banda hanging on the wall. No other poster, clock, or picture could be placed higher on the wall than the president's picture. HP Pavilion DV9730NR Battery
The national anthem was played before most events - including movies, plays, and school assemblies. At the movie theaters, a video of His Excellency waving to his subjects was shown while the anthem played. When Banda visited a city, a contingent of women were expected to greet him at the airport and dance for him. AHP Pavilion DV9710EV Battery
special cloth, bearing the president's picture, was the required attire for these performances. The one radio station in the country aired the president's speeches and government propaganda. People were ordered from their homes and told to lock all windows and doors, by police, at least an hour prior to President Banda passing by...we were expected to wave. HP Pavilion DV9710TX Battery
Among the laws enforced by Banda, it was illegal for women to wear see-through clothes, pants of any kind or skirts which showed any part of the knee. There were two exceptions to this: if they were at a Country Club (a place where various sports were played) and if they were at a holiday resort/hotel... HP Pavilion DV9712TX Battery
which meant that with the exception of the resort/hotel staff, they were not seen by the general populace. Men were not allowed to have hair below the collar; when men whose hair was too long, arrived in the country from overseas, they were given a hair cut before they could leave the airport. HP Pavilion DV9713TX Battery
Churches had to be government sanctioned. Members of certain religious groups, such as Jehovah's Witnesses, were persecuted and kicked around the country at one time. All Malawian citizens of Indian heritage were forced to leave their homes and businesses and move into designated Indian areas in the larger cities. HP Pavilion DV9705TX Battery
At one time, they were all told to leave the country, then hand-picked ones, were allowed to return. It was illegal to transfer or take privately earned funds out of the country unless approved through proper channels; proof had to be supplied to show that one had already brought in the equivalent or more, in foreign currency in the past. HP Pavilion DV9706AX Battery
When some left, they gave up goods and earnings.
All movies shown in theaters were first viewed by the Malawi Censorship Board. Content considered unsuitable — particularly nudity or political content — was edited. Mail was also monitored by the Censorship Board. HP Pavilion DV9706TX Battery
Some overseas mail was opened, read, and sometimes edited. Videotapes had to be sent to the Censorship Board to be viewed by censors. Once edited, the movie was given a sticker stating that it was now suitable for viewing, and sent back to the owner. Telephone calls were monitored and disconnected if the conversation was politically critical. HP Pavilion DV9707TX Battery
Items to be sold in bookstores were also edited. Pages, or parts of pages, were cut out or blacked out of magazines such as Newsweek and Time.
Tourism "In global terms Africa, and Southern Africa in particular, is a small player in travel and tourism. HP Pavilion DV9708TX Battery
With little over 3% of world tourist arrivals (and less than 2% if one excludes South Africa) Africa remains an undeveloped market in global terms. In the year 2000 only 10 million visitors came to countries in the region of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). HP Pavilion DV9709EF Battery
Using the overall SADC figures as a comparative benchmark, an even smaller number came to Malawi – 219,000 in 1998, 254,000 in 1999 and 222,526 in 2000. Despite these small numbers, the number of visitors has doubled over the last decade. HP Pavilion DV9709TX Battery
While Malawi was the 10th poorest country in the world during much of Banda's tenure, he managed to keep peace in the country for most of the time he was in power. He was a wealthy man, like most if not all world leaders. He owned houses (and lived in a palace), businesses, private helicopters, cars and other such luxuries. HP Pavilion DV9710EA Battery
Speaking out against the president was strictly prohibited. Those who did so were often deported or imprisoned. Banda and his government were criticized for human rights violations by Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International. After he was deposed, Banda was put on trial for murder and attempts to destroy evidence. HP Pavilion DV9710EF Battery
During his rule, Banda was one of the very few post-colonial African leaders to maintain diplomatic relations with apartheid South Africa.
Increasing domestic unrest and pressure from Malawian churches and from the international community led to a referendum in which the Malawian people were asked to vote for either a multi-party democracy or the continuation of a one-party state. HP Pavilion DV9710EI Battery
On June 14, 1993, the people of Malawi voted overwhelmingly in favor of multi-party democracy. Free and fair national elections were held on May 17, 1994 under a provisional constitution, which took full effect the following year. HP Pavilion DV9710EL Battery
Bakili Muluzi, leader of the United Democratic Front (UDF), was elected President in those elections. The UDF won 82 of the 177 seats in the National Assembly and formed a coalition government with the Alliance for Democracy (AFORD). That coalition disbanded in June 1996, but some of its members remained in the government. HP Pavilion DV9710ES Battery
The President was referred to as Dr Muluzi, having received an honorary degree at Lincoln University in Missouri in 1995. Malawi's newly written constitution (1995) eliminated special powers previously reserved for the Malawi Congress Party. Accelerated economic liberalization and structural reform accompanied the political transition. HP Pavilion DV9710EV Battery
On June 15, 1999, Malawi held its second democratic elections. Bakili Muluzi was re-elected to serve a second five-year term as President, despite an MCP-AFORD Alliance that ran a joint slate against the UDF.
The aftermath of elections brought the country close to the brink of civil strife. HP Pavilion DV9710TX Battery
Disgruntled Tumbuka, Ngoni and Nkhonde Christian tribes dominant in the north were irritated by the election of Muluzi, a Muslim from the south. Conflict between Christians and Muslims of the Yao tribe (Muluzi tribe) begun. Property, valued at over millions of dollars, were either vandalized or stolen and 200 mosques were torched down. HP Pavilion DV9712TX Battery
Malawi in the 21st century
In 2001, the UDF held 96 seats in the National Assembly, while the AFORD held 30, and the MCP 61. Six seats were held by independents who represent the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) opposition group. HP Pavilion DV9700 Battery
The NDA was not recognized as an official political party at that time. The National Assembly had 193 members, of whom 17 were women, including one of the Deputy Speakers.
Malawi saw its first transition between democratically elected presidents in May 2004, HP Pavilion DV9700T Battery
when the UDF's presidential candidate Bingu wa Mutharika defeated MCP candidate John Tembo and Gwanda Chakuamba, who was backed by a grouping of opposition parties. The UDF, however, did not win a majority of seats in Parliament, as it had done in 1994 and 1999 elections. HP Pavilion DV9700Z Battery
It successfully secured a majority by forming a "government of national unity" with several opposition parties. Bingu wa Mutharika left the UDF party on 5 February 2005 citing differences with the UDF, particularly over his anti-corruption campaign. He won a second term outright in the 2009 election as the head of a newly founded party, the Democratic Progressive Party. HP Pavilion DV9701AU Battery
The economy of Malawi is predominantly agricultural, with about 90% of the population living in rural areas. The landlocked country in south central Africa ranks among the world's least developed countries. Agriculture accounts for 37% of GDP and 85% of export revenues. HP Pavilion DV9701AX Battery
The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank , and individual donor nations. The government faces strong challenges: to spur exports, to improveeducational and health facilities, to face up to environmental problems of deforestation and erosion, and to deal with the rapidly growing problem of HIV/AIDS in Africa. HP Pavilion DV9701TX Battery
Malawi was ranked the 118th safest investment destination in the world in the March 2011 Euromoney Country Risk rankings.
Agriculture represents 36% of GDP, accounts for over 80% of the labor force, and represents about 80% of all exports. HP Pavilion DV9702AU Battery
Its most important export crop is tobacco, which accounts for about 70% of export revenues. In 2000 the country was the tenth largest producer in the world (See table). The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimates the following production of unprocessed tobacco by country in 2009 (figures are in thousands of tonnes.) HP Pavilion DV9702AX Battery
The country's heavy reliance on tobacco places a heavy burden on the economy as world prices decline and the international community increases pressure to limittobacco production. Malawi's dependence on tobacco is growing, with the product jumping from 53% to 70% of export revenues between 2007 and 2008. HP Pavilion DV9702EA Battery
The country also relies heavily on tea, sugarcane and coffee, with these three plus tobacco making up more than 90% of Malawi's export revenue. Tea was first introduced in 1878. Most of it is grown in Mulanje and Thyolo. Other crops include cotton, corn,potatoes, sorghum, cattle and goats. Tobacco and sugar processing are notable secondary industries. HP Pavilion DV9702TX Battery
Traditionally Malawi has been self-sufficient in its staple food, maize (corn), and during the 1980s it exported substantial quantities to its drought-stricken neighbors. Nearly 90% of the population engages in subsistence farming. Smallholder farmers produce a variety of crops, including maize, beans, rice, cassava, tobacco, and groundnuts (peanuts). HP Pavilion DV9703AX Battery
Financial wealth is generally concentrated in the hands of a small elite. Malawi's manufacturing industries are situated around the city ofBlantyre.
Malawi has few exploitable mineral resources. Malawi's economic reliance on the export of agricultural commodities renders it particularly vulnerable to external shocks such as declining terms of trade and drought. HP Pavilion DV9703TX Battery
High transport costs, which can comprise over 30% of its total import bill, constitute a serious impediment to economic development and trade. Malawi must import all its fuel products. Other challenges include a paucity of skilled labor, difficulty in obtaining expatriate employment permits, HP Pavilion DV9704AX Battery
bureaucratic red tape,corruption, and inadequate and deteriorating road, electricity, water, and telecommunications infrastructure which hinder economic development in Malawi. However, recent government initiatives targeting improvements in the road infrastructure, HP Pavilion DV9704TX Battery
together with private sector participation in railroad and telecommunications, have begun to render the investment environment more attractive.
Malawi has four pharmaceutical companies are actively engaged in the manufacture. HP Pavilion DV9705AX Battery
They manufacture a limited range of drugs, particularly those that are in great demand on the local market. These are Pharmanova Ltd. and its sister company SADM, Malawi Pharmacies (Pharmaceuticals Limited) and Kentam Products Limited. HP Pavilion DV9705EA Battery
Malawi has undertaken economic structural adjustment programs supported by the World Bank (IBRD), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and other donors since 1981. HP Pavilion DV9705EF Battery
Broad reform objectives include stimulation of private sector activity and participation through the elimination of price controls and industrial licensing, liberalization of trade and foreign exchange, rationalization of taxes, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and civil service reform. HP Pavilion DV9627XX Battery
Malawi qualified forHeavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) debt relief and is in the process of refining its Poverty Reduction Strategy.
Real GDP grew by 3.6% in 1999 and 2.1% in 2000. The government's monetary policy has been expansionary, HP Pavilion DV9628NR Battery
and the average annual inflation has hovered around 30% in 2000 and 2001, keeping discount and commercial bank rates high (the discount rate was 47% in December 2000). In the second half of 2001, the Kwacha strengthened sharply against the U.S. dollar, moving from 80 to 60. HP Pavilion DV9628XX Battery
Malawi has bilateral trade agreements with its two major trading partners, South Africa and Zimbabwe, both of which allow duty-free entry of Malawian products into their countries. HP Pavilion DV9630EF Battery
The government faces challenges such as the improvement of Malawi's educational and health facilities—particularly important because of the rising rates of HIV/AIDS—and environmental problems including deforestation, erosion, and overworked soils. HP Pavilion DV9630XX Battery
Move towards economic independence
In 2006, in response to disastrously low agricultural harvests, Malawi, through an initiative by President Bingu Mutharika,an economist by profession, began a program of fertilizer subsidies that were designed to re-energize the land and boost crop production. HP Pavilion DV9631EF Battery
It has been reported that this program, championed by the country's president, is radically improving Malawi's agriculture, and causing Malawi to become a net exporter of food to nearby countries.
Economic grievances though took a downward slide during Mutharikas second term. HP Pavilion DV9631EM Battery
Economic grivences was a catalyst that resulted in the 2011 economic protests in Malawi in July.
Bingu wa Mutharika (born Brightson Webster Ryson Thom; 24 February 1934 – 5 April 2012) was a Malawian politician and economist who was President of Malawi from May 2004 until his death. HP Pavilion DV9635CA Battery
He was also the president of the ruling Democratic Progressive Party, which has a majority in Malawi's parliament as a result of the 2009 general election. During his two terms in office he was noted for presiding over the African Union, as well as several domestic controversies. HP Pavilion DV9635XX Battery
He died of a heart attack in Lilongwe on 5 April. Early life and career
Bingu wa Mutharika was born Brightson Webster Ryson Thom on 24 February 1934 in Thyolo. Mutharika's parents, Ryson Thom Mutharika and Eleni Thom Mutharika, were both members of the Church of Scotland Mission which later became Church of Central Africa, HP Pavilion DV9638US Battery
Presbyterian. His father was a teacher for 37 years and his mother taught the women of the Mvanogroup.
Upon completing his primary education at Ulongwe Mission and Chingoli, Mulanje, Ntambanyama, Malamulo, in Thyolo and Henri Henderson Institute in Blantyre, HP Pavilion DV9638XX Battery
Mutharika obtained a Grade A Cambridge Overseas School Leaving Certificate at Dedza Secondary School in 1956. In 1964, he was one of the 32 Malawians selected by Hastings Kamuzu Banda (President of Malawi1961–1994) to travel to India on an Indira Gandhi scholarship for 'fast track' diplomas. HP Pavilion DV9640CA Battery
The BBC reports that he went to India to "escape then President Hastings Banda's crackdown on political opponents". At some point during the 1960s, he also changed his name, to Bingu wa Mutharika. In India, Mutharika earned his Bachelor's degree in Economics. HP Pavilion DV9640US Battery
Subsequently, he attended the Delhi School of Economics graduating with a M.A. degree in Economics. He later obtained a PhD degree in Development Economics from Pacific Western University. Mutharika also completed short courses on Business Management, Financial Analysis, Trade Promotion, Political Leadership, regional Economic Co-operation and Human Relations. HP Pavilion DV9644CA Battery
Mutharika served in the Malawi civil service. He has served as Administrative Officer in the Government of Malawi and Zambia. He was offered the Deputy Governorship of the reserve Bank of Malawi and appointed Minister of Economic Planning and Development in 2002. HP Pavilion DV9644XX Battery
He also worked at the World Bank as a Loans Officer and at the United Nations Economic Commission of Africa, as Director of Trade and Development Finance and as Secretary General of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa COMESA, covering 22 Member States.
Presidential campaigns (1999–2009)
Mutharika co-founded the United Democratic Front in 1992. In 1999, he stood as a candidate in the presidential election, finishing last. HP Pavilion DV9650US Battery
Mutharika was nominated by then President Muluzi as his successor. Mutharika won thepresidential election on 20 May 2004, ahead of John Tembo and Gwanda Chakuamba, and took office a few days later. HP Pavilion DV9650XX Battery
On 7 October 2006, Mutharika stated his intention to seek re-election in the 2009 presidential election as the DPP candidate. Two years later, in October 2008, the DPP's national governing council unanimously chose Mutharika as the party's candidate for the 2009 election, which he won with 66.7% of the vote. HP Pavilion DV9653CL Battery
During President Mutharika's first term in office (2004–2008), the country achieved a high rate of agricultural production and food security. The President's initiatives, centred on a programme of agricultural subsidy, benefited approximately 1,700,000 resource poor smallholder farmers. HP Pavilion DV9653XX Battery
In the 2005/2006 crop season, Malawi achieved a food surplus of more than 500,000 metric tons. During the 2008/2009 planting season, food surpluses topped 1.3 million metric tons. This agricultural policy was widely regarded as successful but expensive, and was curtailed in 2011.
Second termHP Pavilion DV9657CL Battery
Under his tenure, the constitutionally enshrined human rights and separation of powers were enhanced, including legal reform. His first term was seen as a broad political success. He has also been credited with committing to and presiding over economic reform, fiscal restraint and anti-corruption measures. HP Pavilion DV9657XX Battery
During his tenure, the election was recognised by monitors as fair. Mutharika's Malawi Growth and Development Strategy for 2006–2011 prioritised the enhancement of: agriculture and food security, education, transport, energy generation, rural development, irrigation and water development, HP Pavilion DV9680ED Battery
youth development and anti-corruption initiatives.
In 2009, Malawi's Ministry of Finance estimated that during the previous four years the share of Malawians living below the poverty line fell from 52 percent to 40 percent. HP Pavilion DV9680XX Battery
This has been attributed to the country's agricultural policies, which have been seen as pioneering in the context of African economic development.
In addition to championing food security in Malawi, Mutharika promoted a similar approach for Africa. HP Pavilion DV9695EF Battery
While Chairman of the African Union in 2010, the President laid down a road map for Africa to achieve sustainability and food security. He proposed a new partnership with other African nations, which he called the “African Food Basket”,outlining a strategy incorporating subsidies to small farmers, HP Pavilion DV9695XX Battery
especially women, improvements in irrigation, and improving agriculture and food security over 5 years through innovative interventions that comprise subsidies, increased budgetary allocations, private sector investment and affordable information and communications technology. HP Pavilion DV9611XX Battery
Approximately half of the country's subsistence farmers received vouchers which provided discounts on maize seed and fertiliser. To sustain the program, the Malawi Government allocated 11 percent of its budget for 2010/2011 to agriculture, continuing a rare record of commitment on this scale in Africa. HP Pavilion DV9612TX Battery
The level of investment in the programme was reduced in 2011.
Mutharika was accused of trying to sideline and isolate his vice-president, Joyce Banda. He kicked her out of the party in 2010 because she refused to accept the nomination of Peter Mutharika as the next president.[25HP Pavilion DV9612XX Battery
] She remained vice-president of the country because there had been no formal impeachment process.
As a result of the Cochrane-Dyet 2011 cable controversy that accused Mutharika of being increasingly 'arrogant' and 'autocratic', he expelled the British High Commissioner. HP Pavilion DV9613TX Battery
In international relationships, his close relationships with Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe and Omar al-Bashir of Sudan were controversial.
In 2011, days of nationwide protests occurred, sparked by worsening fuel shortages, rising prices and high unemployment. HP Pavilion DV9613XX Battery
Malawi's health ministry confirmed 18 deaths in the northern cities of Karonga and Mzuzu as a result of police using live ammunition to quell protests. Mutharika was unapologetic and said that he would "smoke out" all his enemies. This was accompanied by a crack-down on Malawian journalists, human rights activists, and lawyers, including Ralph Kasambara. HP Pavilion DV9614TX Battery
Other events that marred his presidency were the activities surrounding the 2011 academic freedom stand-off between the President and University, and the death of student activist Robert Chasowa. HP Pavilion DV9614XX Battery
Chairperson of the African Union
On 31 January 2010, Mutharika replaced Muammar al-Gaddafi as chairperson of the African Union after Gaddafi's attempt to run as the African Union chairperson for an additional year failed. Mutharika was Malawi's first head of state to assume the position of chairperson. HP Pavilion DV9615CA Battery
In his acceptance speech he said that "Africa is not a poor continent, but the African population are poor" and called for "Africa to develop Africa". He shared his vision for the African Food Basket Initiative by making food security a priority in his agenda.
On 4 April he attended the 50th anniversary in celebration of Senegalese independence as the African Union chairperson. HP Pavilion DV9615TX Battery
He also attended the G8 summit in Canada and the G20 Summit in Seoul, South Korea.
On 26 July, he attended the African Union summit in Kampala, Uganda, where he comdemned the International Criminal Court (ICC) for issuing a warrant to arrest Omar al Bashir because it undermined African authority. HP Pavilion DV9618CA Battery
They adopted the African Food Basket Initiative here which was presented to the UN on 29 September. On 6 September, he attended the inauguration of Rwandan President Paul Kagame. He attended the Iran-Africa Conference, which aimed at strengthening ties between Iran and African countries. HP Pavilion DV9618XX Battery
During a speech at Boston University, Mutharika defended his subsidy program and noted that although Western countries say African governments should not subsidise agriculture, Western governments subsidise their own farmers. Malawi hosted Africas first conference that brought together Ministers of Agriculture in Africa where they were urged to fight for subsidies in agriculture. HP Pavilion DV9620US Battery
He did not attend the Africa-EU Trade summit in Libya but no official reason was provided for this move. During his tenure, he joined international calls for Laurent Gbagbo to accept defeat in Ivorian presidential election, 2010. HP Pavilion DV9620XX Battery
Family and personal life
Mutharika was a practising Roman Catholic and married to Zimbawean Ethel Zvauya Mutharika, with whom he had four children. Ethel Mutharika died of cancer on 28 May 2007. In 2010, Mutharika announced he planned to marry Callista Chimombo, a former Minister of Tourism. HP Pavilion DV9623CA Battery
The two were married on 1 May 2010.
Mutharika's brother, Peter Mutharika, was a lecturer at Washington University in St. Louis. In May 2009, he was elected to the Malawian Parliament, and was subsequently appointed to the Malawi Cabinet as Minister of Justice and Constitutional Affairs. He has held other cabinet positions. HP Pavilion DV9623CL Battery
Mutharika on 5 April 2012 at the age of 78. He suffered a heart attack and was was reportedly flown to a South African hospital due to power outages in Lilongwe. The media reported "chaotic scenes" after his wife, Callista, and other cabinet members were leaving the hospital. HP Pavilion DV9625CA Battery
His condition was initially announced as "critical." Vice President Joyce Banda wished him a quick recovery. In reaction, police were deployed across the national capital with 15 Army officers posted at the Vice President's residence.
His death was officially confirmed on 7 April, HP Pavilion DV9625XX Battery
the day Joyce Banda was sworn in as Malawi's first female president despite controversy following Information and Civic Education Minister Patricia Kaliati's statement that "the conduct of the honourable Joyce Banda in forming her own opposition party precludes her from being eligible to succeed the presidency," HP Pavilion DV9627CL Battery
while the country's security forces also wanted the constitutional order to prevail.
The former U.S. ambassador to Tanzania Charles Stith said of Mutharika that he was "unwavering in his commitment to improve the plight of Malawi’s poor" and that he was " one of Africa’s most courageous and conscientious leaders." HP Pavilion DV9607XX Battery
Titles, honours and awards
Mutharika received the following awards:
The United Nations Special Millennium development Goal Award (2010) for success towards eliminating hunger by enhancing food security ahead of the 2015 MDG deadline (Goal 1 – ending poverty and hunger) HP Pavilion DV9608CA Battery
COMESA Distinguished Award (2010) for exceptional leadership and distinguished service to COMESA and the integration of Africa as Secretary General of COMESA form 1991 to 1997. The Authority specifically commended Mutharika for his contribution to the realisation of the Abuja Treaty objectives towards African integration. HP Pavilion DV9608EA Battery
Southern Africa Trust Drivers of Change Award (2009) for changing Malawi from a country in perpetual food deficit to one that is entirely food-sufficient. “The boom in this sector has had a direct impact on millions of poor people. Under his leadership, poverty has declined from 58 to 42 percent in five years. HP Pavilion DV9608NR Battery
Through his direct involvement in turning Malawi's future around, he is building new confidence and hope amongst the citizens of Africa in their governments.”
2009 Medal of Glory Awards – “President Mutharika was chosen for the award because of his bold reform s that have resulted in the Malawi green revolution, HP Pavilion DV9608TX Battery
and Malawi's increase in its economic growth rate from less that 1 percent in 2003, before he took office to more than 9.7 percent in 2008, at the end of his first term office”
The Most Excellent Grand Commander (MEGC) – Top most award of Malawi order of National Achievement conferred by the Malawi Civilian Honours and Decorations, HP Pavilion DV9609TX Battery
6 July 2009
Inaugural Food Agriculture and Natural resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) Food Security Policy Leadership Award (2008), “for his agricultural policy interventions which have transformed Malawi form a food deficit nation to a net maize exporter” HP Pavilion DV9609XX Battery
FAO's Agricola Medal (2008) in honour of “his substantial contribution towards transforming the country's economy form a state of food deficit nation to a net exporter of maize”
Louise Blouin Foundation Award for Exceptional Creative Achievement (2008) for making a positive impact on a global scaleHP Pavilion DV9610CA Battery
Danish Government Award of recognition for outstanding performances in promoting gender equality and women empowerment (2008).
Mutharika received several honorary degrees including Professor of Economics by East China Normal University, in April 2010;HP Pavilion DV9610TX Battery
Doctor of Letters (D.Lilkmktt) Degree Honoris Causa by the University of Delhi in October, 2010; Doctor of Law (PhD Degree (Honoris Causa), Mzuzu University, in 2008 and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Degree (Honoris Causa), University of Strathclyde, Scotland in 2005. HP Pavilion DV9610US Battery
He was the founder and chairman of the Bineth Trust – a nonprofit organisation promoting education; Founder of the Silvergrey International; and founder and Chairman of the Bingu Silvergrey Foundation of the elderly and retired persons. He is also the founder of the Malawi University of Science and Technology, HP Pavilion DV9610XX Battery
the Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources; University of Cotton Research at Bangula; the University of Marine biology; the University of Mombera and the University of Nkhotakota. HP Pavilion DV9611TX Battery, HP Pavilion DV9605XX Battery,HP Pavilion DV9606CA Battery,HP Pavilion DV9606TX Battery,HP Pavilion DV9607TX Battery