Swazi regiments were roaming the country
Posted May 16th, 2012 at 02:40am
She set about eliminating the surviving advisors and favourites of Bhunu.
Swazi regiments were roaming the country during the internal conflicts. The South African authorities were worried that the violence could expand towards the south-western border of Swaziland, where Boer farms were cultivated by women and children.HP Pavilion DV6907CA Battery
They had the farms evacuated and the population transferred to Piet Retief. The farmers from Piet Retief, Wakkerstroom and their vicinities had made a practice of trekking their ship into Swaziland for winter grazing. In January, 1900, Francis William Reitz, the State Secretary of the South African Republic, HP Pavilion DV6907EA Battery
started issuing orders discouraging any sheep-herders from entering Swaziland. On 18 April 1900, any such entry was forbidden. The Swaziland Commando were by that point far from their initial homebase, fighting along the Tugela River.
The British had their own concerns about Swaziland. HP Pavilion DV6907TX Battery
They suspected that supplies from Mozambique could be smuggled to the Boers through Swaziland. Queen-regent Labotsibeni was however attempting to maintain neutrality in the wider conflict, pre-occupied with securing the throne.
Her grandson Sobhuza II of Swaziland was underage and there were other viable candidates for the throne among the House of Dlamini. In particular, Prince Masumphe. Masumphe was a cousin of Bhunu and a rival candidate for the throne since 1889. His line of the family maintained close relations with the Boers, the Prince himself educated at Pretoria. HP Pavilion DV6898EC Special Edition Battery
By May, 1900, the Queen was worried that the Boers would intervene against her in case of a succession dispute. She opened communications with the restored magistrate of Ingwavuma, arranging to flee to his area if needed.
Her messages were passed to the government of Natal and from there to Cape Town, the capital of the Cape Colony. HP Pavilion DV6898ES Special Edition Battery
A reply by Johannes Smuts assured her that the British had not forgotten about the Swazi and British representatives would reliably return to Swaziland at an early date. The message might have reflected Smuts' own ambitions but his authority on such matters was rather questionable. HP Pavilion DV6899EA Special Edition Battery
But Frederick Roberts, Baron Roberts, a high-ranking military officer, was also convinced to start diplomatic contacts with the Queen. His representatives were to persuade the queen-regent of three things. First, the need to prevent the Boers from occupying the mountains of the area. HP Pavilion DV6899EC Special Edition Battery
Second, the necessity of formally appealing for British protection. Third, to make clear that the indiscriminate murders in Swaziland would have to end.
The British contacts with the Swazi played a role in advance of their siege of Komatipoort, a nearby South African stronghold. HP Pavilion DV6899EE Special Edition Battery
In September 1900, once the town fell, the British were able to capture Barberton and its area. A number of Boers fled into Swaziland. Only for the Swazi to disarm them and confiscate their cattle. The end of South African presence in the area left open the question of what to do with Swaziland. HP Pavilion DV6899EF Special Edition Battery
Smuts had been campaigning since May to convince the British authorities to place Swaziland under their administration. By September, Smuts had gained some support from civil authorities. But not by military ones, since Roberts did not want to devote any of his forces to an invasion or occupation of the area. HP Pavilion DV6899EI Special Edition Battery
Nevertheless, Smuts attempted some diplomatic contacts with the Swazi. Not particularly successful ones. The indvuna Smuts met for discussions refused to give any information on the internal affairs of Swaziland or Boer activities.
The fall of Komatipoort resulted in increasing the importace of Swaziland for the Boers. HP Pavilion DV6899EL Special Edition Battery
To maintain their communications with diplomatic and trade contacts inLourenço Marques, Mozambique, the Boers had to sent messengers through Swaziland. Which was difficult since British forces were allowed to pass through certain Swazi areas. By November 1900, HP Pavilion DV6899EN Special Edition Battery
the Queen was able to assure both Roberts and Smuts that she "was doing her best to drive Boers out of her country". A few armed burghers and their African allies, hostile to her government, were still active at times.
On 29 November 1900, Roberts was relieved of his command. HP Pavilion DV6899EO Special Edition Battery
His replacement was Herbert Kitchener, Baron Kitchener of Khartoum. By late December, Smuts contacted the military secretary office of Kitchener concerning the Swaziland situation. Smuts had secured the position of Resident Commissioner of Swaziland though the British had no actual authority over the area. HP Pavilion DV6899EP Special Edition Battery
He attempted to convince Kitchener it was time to establish a permanent military presence in Swaziland. With himself taking charge of the area. Kitchener had a different view. Starting his own correspondence with Labotsibeni, Kitchener insisted on three points. First, the Swazi were still required to not take part in the war. HP Pavilion DV6899ER Special Edition Battery
Second, no British forces would be send in Swaziland unless the area faced a Boer invasion. Third, the Swazis were now directly under the authority of the British Crown, owing their loyalty to Victoria of the United Kingdom.
In December 1900-January 1901, there were information that retreating Boers were attempting to flee through Swaziland. HP Pavilion DV6899ES Special Edition Battery
Eight British columns were sent to either force the Boer commandos to surrender or flee to Swaziland. A certain column under Horace Smith-Dorrien proceeded all the way to the Swaziland border, managing to capture several Boer wagons and large numbers of cattle and sheep on 9 February 1901. HP Pavilion DV6899EW Special Edition Battery
Most of the captured Boers were sent to the concentration camp ofVolksrust. On February 11, another column under Edmund Allenby was positioned at the southern border of Swaziland. On 14 February, Smith-Dorrien's forces reached Amsterdam. There he was contacted by envoys of the Queen-regent, requesting aid in driving the Boers off her land.
In response, the Imperial Light Horseand the Suffolk Regiment were send into Swaziland.
Joined by armed Swazis, the two regiments were able to capture about 30 Boers in an initial skirmish. However heavy rains soon slowed their advance through the country. On 28 February 1901, other 200 men of the British mounted infantry entered Swaziland. HP Pavilion DV6880EV Battery
Under Lt-Col Henry, this force managed to locate and capture the transport convoy of the Piet Retief Commando. About 65 Boers were captured in the operation. The remnants of the Commando retreated towards the southern border of Swaziland, only to get captured by the British forces stationed there. HP Pavilion DV6880EW Battery
By early March, Smith-Dorrien noted that the Swazis were pillaging Boer residences. By this time, Allenby had reached Mahamba and set camp there, Henry was pursuing another Boer wagon convoys and Queen-regent Labotsibeni was ordering her Impis to clear their land from the Boers. HP Pavilion DV6880SE Influx Special Edition Battery
Henry eventually managed to return to Derby with several prisoners, while Allenby and his forces reached the vicinity ofHlatikulu. The burthers had to limit themselves to "the hills of southwestern Swaziland".
Surviving accounts from the Devonshire Regiment indicate that the Swazis were acting as "a ninth column, commanded by the Queen of the Swazis". HP Pavilion DV6883CL Battery
On 8 March 1901, remnants of the Piet Retief Commando, accompanied by women and children, were attacked by forces supposedly under Chief Ntshingila Simelano. The latter consisted of about 40 men, including two riflemen. 13 Burghers and one African guide were killed, several wounded, the others were scattered. HP Pavilion DV6884CA Battery
Some of the survivors later surrendered to the 18th Hussars. Ntshingila later denied any involvement in the massacre. In any case, the incident terrified several other Boers. Between 8 and 11 March, about 70 burghers and various women children chose to surrender to Allenby rather than face the Swazis. HP Pavilion DV6885CA Thrive Special Edition Battery
The British nevertheless warned Labotsibeni to cease further massacres.
On 11 April 1901, Louis Botha corresponded with Kitchener, complaining that British Officers were inducing the Swazis to fight against the Boers. Claiming the result was the indiscriminate murders of Burghers, women and children by Swazi commandos. HP Pavilion DV6885EK Battery
Allenby attributed the killings partly to Swazi anxiety to counter Boer incursions into their territory and partly to their fear of Boer reprisals. That is what the Boers would do when the British eventually left. Allenby himself refused to allow large numbers of armed Swazis to join his column, though he still used a few of them as guides. HP Pavilion DV6885SE Battery
Smuts finally entered Swaziland during this month, though unable to establish his authority over any British forces.
The presence of regular British troops allowed the Queen-regent to present to them her concerns over an irregular unit, "Steinaecker's Horse". HP Pavilion DV6887EO Battery
Created early in the war as a unit of adventurers and mercenaries under British command, they were well known for looting Boer property. But with the Boer inreasingly impoverished, they had turned their attention to the cattle of the Swazi. Labotsibeni complained to both sides that this unit consisted of common robbers occupying Bremersdorp. HP Pavilion DV6890ES Battery
Botha responded by sending a Commansdo Unit against the Horse. They were to avoid antagonizing the Swazi in any way. The Swazi National Council agreed to let them pass. Between 21 and 23 July 1901, the Ermelo Commando succeeded in forcing most of the "Steinaecker's Horse" forces to retreat, capturing about 35 men, killing or wounding a few and burning Bremersdorp to the ground. HP Pavilion DV6890ET Battery
Both the British and the Boers continued to have access to Swaziland with occasional skirmishes occurring. On 8 November 1901, for example, the 13th Hussarscaptured 14 burghers near Mahamba. The skirmishes ended in February 1902 with the defeat of the final Boer unit in Swaziland. HP Pavilion DV6890EW Battery
Throughout the colonial period from 1906 to 1968, Swaziland was governed by a resident commissioner who ruled according to decrees issued by the British High Commissioner for South Africa. HP Pavilion DV6894CA Battery
Such decrees were formulated in close consultation with the resident commissioners, who in turn took informal and formal advice from white settler interests and the Swazi royalty. In 1921 the British established Swaziland's first legislative body—a European Advisory Council (EAC) of elected white representatives mandated to advise the British high commissioner on non-Swazi affairs.HP Pavilion DV6895ET Battery
In 1944, the high commissioner both reconstituted the basis and role of the EAC, and, over Swazi objections, issued a Native Authorities Proclamation constituting the paramount chief or Ingwenyama and King to the Swazis, as the British called the king,HP Pavilion DV6855EA Special Edition Battery
as the native authority for the territory to issue legally enforceable orders to the Swazis subject to restrictions and directions from the resident commissioner. Under pressure from royal non-cooperation this proclamation was revised in 1952 to grant the Swazi paramount chief a degree of autonomy unprecedented in British colonial indirect rule in Africa. HP Pavilion DV6855EE Battery
In 1921, after more than 20 years of regency headed by Queen Regent Labotsibeni, Sobhuza II became Ngenyama (lion) or head of the Swazi nation. In the early years of colonial rule, the British expected that Swaziland would eventually be incorporated into South Africa. HP Pavilion DV6855EG Battery
After World War II, however, South Africa's intensification of racial discrimination induced the United Kingdom to prepare Swaziland for independence. Political activity intensified in the early 1960s. Several political parties were formed and jostled for independence and economic development. HP Pavilion DV6855EL Battery
The largely urban parties had few ties to the rural areas, where the majority of Swazis lived. The traditional Swazi leaders, including King Sobhuza II and his Inner Council, formed the Imbokodvo National Movement (INM), a political group that capitalized on its close identification with the Swazi way of life. HP Pavilion DV6855EZ Battery
Responding to pressure for political change, the colonial government scheduled an election in mid-1964 for the first legislative council in which the Swazis would participate. In the election, the INM and four other parties, most having more radical platforms, competed in the election. The INM won all 24 elective seats. HP Pavilion DV6858CA Battery
Having solidified its political base, INM incorporated many demands of the more radical parties, especially that of immediate independence. In 1966, the UK Government agreed to discuss a new constitution. HP Pavilion DV6860EI Battery
A constitutional committee agreed on a constitutional monarchy for Swaziland, with self-government to follow parliamentary elections in 1967. Swaziland became independent on September 6, 1968. Swaziland's post-independence elections were held in May 1972. The INM received close to 75% of the vote. HP Pavilion DV6860EJ Battery
The Ngwane National Liberatory Congress (NNLC) received slightly more than 20% of the vote which gained the party three seats in parliament.
In response to the NNLC's showing, King Sobhuza repealed the 1968 constitution on April 12, 1973 and dissolved parliament. HP Pavilion DV6860EL Battery
He assumed all powers of government and prohibited all political activities and trade unions from operating. He justified his actions as having removed alien and divisive political practices incompatible with the Swazi way of life. In January 1979, a new parliament was convened, chosen partly through indirect elections and partly through direct appointment by the king. HP Pavilion DV6860EP Battery
King Sobhuza II died in August 1982, and Queen Regent Dzeliwe assumed the duties of the head of state. In 1984, an internal dispute led to the replacement of the prime minister and eventual replacement of Dzeliwe by a new Queen Regent Ntombi. Ntombi's only child, Prince Makhosetive, HP Pavilion DV6860EV Battery
was named heir to the Swazi throne. Real power at this time was concentrated in the Liqoqo, a supreme traditional advisory body that claimed to give binding advice to the Queen Regent. In October 1985, Queen Regent Ntombi demonstrated her power by dismissing the leading figures of the Liqoqo. HP Pavilion DV6860EW Battery
Prince Makhosetive returned from school in England to ascend to the throne and help end the continuing internal disputes. He was enthroned as Mswati III on April 25, 1986. Shortly afterwards he abolished the Liqoqo. In November 1987, a new parliament was elected and a new cabinet appointed. HP Pavilion DV6864CA Battery
In 1988 and 1989, an underground political party, the People's United Democratic Movement (PUDEMO), criticized the king and his government, calling for 'democratic reforms'. HP Pavilion DV6865EL Battery
In response to this political threat and to growing popular calls for greater accountability within government, the king and the prime minister initiated an ongoing national debate on the constitutional and political future of Swaziland. This debate produced a handful of political reforms, approved by the king, HP Pavilion DV6868EZ Battery
including direct and indirect voting, in the 1993 national elections.
Swaziland is governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, in which political power is shared by the king and parliament.Swaziland today is foremost ruled by a monarch, although for all of its administrative history prior to British colonization in 1903, it might have more properly been called a diarchy. HP Pavilion DV6870EE Battery
According to current Swazi law and custom, the monarch holds supreme executive, legislative, and judicial powers. History is short, however, and in Swaziland's case is punctuated with a 65 year reign (including a 23 year regency) of Sobhuza II of Swaziland. HP Pavilion DV6870EG Battery
The Ngwenyama (King, lion, representing the hardness as expressed in thunder) is a hereditary leader, rules the country, with the assistance of a council of ministers and a national legislature. The Ndlovukati (Senior Queen, preferentially the mother of the king, HP Pavilion DV6870EI Battery
she-elephant, representing softness as in water) is in charge of national rituals, and acts as regent if her counterpart Ngwenyama dies and the heir has not performed royal adulthood rituals or is indisposed. If the king's mother is no longer living, one of the king's wives may act as Ndlovukati. HP Pavilion DV6870EJ Battery
In Sobhuza II's case, his grandmother theNdlovukati Labotsibeni Mdluli was regent from his choice as infant heir in 1899 following the death of his father Bhunu until his accession to full authority in 1922, when his mother Lomawa Ndwandwe became the ndlovukati. Later in his long reign three other women became senior queen, HP Pavilion DV6870EL Battery
when an ndlovukati" died, another was appointed from among his senior wives.
The king and the senior queen rule together in theory, and did so in practice up until the reign of Sobhuza II, making the term "monarchy" somewhat misleading historically. Before colonization the senior queen acted as a check and counterweight to the king's power, HP Pavilion DV6870EW Battery
both through her direct control of some military forces and her control of rainmaking medicines and rites and of key aspects of the Ncwala national ritual that annually binds the fate of the king and the nation together. British policy and the strength of Sobhuza II's personality shifted power decisively toward the king and away from the senior queen during his long reign. HP Pavilion DV6870US Battery
During a period of intense succession struggles following the death of Sobhuza II, the Ndlovukati was assisted by Prince Sozisa Dlamini, the holder of a novel office, the Authorised Person, in-Libandla, and then was deposed and the mother of the heir, now King Mswati III was made ndlovukati prior to his full accession. HP Pavilion DV6871US Battery
Subsequently the constitution was revised to provide that where the Regent and the Authorised Person are not in agreement on any matter, the matter shall be referred to Bantfwabenkhosi (princes) and chiefs.
The King, according to the new constitution, is also Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Forces. He and in-Libandla have legal immunity. HP Pavilion DV6872LA Battery
Succession is chosen in relation to the status of the potential king's mother. Ndlovukazi is chosen by the Royal Council after the King's death, she will be from an unrelated family. Within the aristocracy, the first wife is never the main wife — a second wife who has a higher pedigree will take precedence. HP Pavilion DV6874CA Battery
The Royal family line, the Dlamini's, never intermarry; the King is always a Dlamini, the Queen Mother is never a Dlamini. The king is not followed by blood brothers. He is "Nkosi Dlamini" and is expected to unify his position by choosing wives from all sectors of the community. HP Pavilion DV6875CA Battery
The balance of power lies between the King and the Queen Mother. The Royal Council plays a key role in the selection of the successor to the throne. Much of this tradition remains secret (or undetermined) — but it is rumoured that the new king must be single, and is usually a minor. His wives are important. HP Pavilion DV6875EG Battery
A Swazi king's first two wives are chosen for him by the national councillors. These two have special functions in rituals and their sons can never claim kingship. The first wife must be a member of the Matsebula clan, the second of the Motsa clan. HP Pavilion DV6875SE Influx Special Edition Battery
According to tradition, he can only marry his fiancées after they have fallen pregnant, proving they can bear heirs. Until then, they are Liphovela.
King Mswati III is often criticized for living so lavishly in a nation that is afflicted by one of the world's highest HIV infection rates.HP Pavilion DV6880EE Battery
His fleet of luxury cars, and the millions spent towards refurbishing his numerous wives' luxury mansions, are at odds with the approximately 34 percent of the nation that stand unemployed, nearly 70 percent of which live on less than a dollar a day, and with around 49 percent of adults who suffer from HIV. HP Pavilion DV6880EF Battery
In general practice, however, the monarch's power is delegated through a dualistic system: modern, statutory bodies, like the cabinet, and less formal traditional government structures. HP Pavilion DV6880EG Special Edition Battery
At present, parliament consists of a 82-seat House of Assembly (55 members are elected through popular vote; the Attorney General as an ex-officio member; 10 are appointed by the king and four women elected from each one of the administrative regions) and 30-seat Senate (10 members are appointed by the House of Assembly, HP Pavilion DV6880EJ Battery
and 20 are appointed by the king, whom at least the half must be women). The king must approve legislation passed by parliament before it becomes law. The prime minister, who is head of government is appointed by the king from among the members of the House on recommendations of the King's Advisory Council and the cabinet, HP Pavilion DV6880EL Battery
which is recommended by the prime minister and approved by the king, exercises executive authority.
Parliament, the Libandla has two chambers: the House of Assembly has 82 members, 55 members elected out of candidates nominated by traditional local councils, Battery
the Attorney-General as an ex-official member, 4 women elected for each of the regions and 10 appointed members; balloting is done on a nonparty basis; candidates for election are nominated by the local council of each constituency and for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round, HP Pavilion DV6843EL Battery
and the Senate has 30 non-partisan members, 10 members elected by the House of Assembly and 20 appointed members, with at least half of them being women, as is required by law.
Political parties and elections
For other political parties see List of political parties in Swaziland. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Swaziland. HP Pavilion DV6843EL Battery
Political parties are banned by the constitution promulgated on 13 October 1978; illegal parties are prohibited from holding large public gatherings. At the last elections, 18 October 2003, only non-partisans were elected. One of them is a member of the opposition Ngwane National Liberatory Congress. Most opposition politicians boycotted the elections. HP Pavilion DV6843TX Battery
The 2005 constitution is currently in force. The constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended 12 April 1973 by a State of Emergency decree imposed byKing Sobhuza II, the father of the current King Mswati III. HP Pavilion DV6844EL Battery
The decree gave absolute power to the monarchy and banned organised political opposition to royal rule.
A new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but was not formally presented to the people. HP Pavilion DV6844EZ Battery
In 2001 King Mswati III appointed a committee to draft a new constitution. The draft was released for comment in May 2003, and was strongly criticised by civil society organizations in Swaziland, as well as by Amnesty International and the International Bar Association, among others. HP Pavilion DV6844TX Thrive Special Edition Battery
Amnesty international listed the following criticisms of the draft constitution of 2003:
failure to protect fully the rights to freedom of conscience, belief, expression, opinion, peaceful assembly and association; HP Pavilion DV6845EO Battery
failure to include economic and social rights as rights enforceable by the courts; HP Pavilion DV6845EV Battery
weak actual protection for the impartiality and independence of the judiciary, particularly regarding the selection, appointment, tenure and dismissal of judges. HP Pavilion DV6845TX Thrive Special Edition Battery
A new draft was placed before the largely advisory parliament on November 4, 2004. The draft reportedly is substantially the same as the version issued in 2003.
Swaziland's two largest political organisations, the People's United Democratic Movement (PUDEMO) and the Ngwane National Liberatory Congress (NNLC), HP Pavilion DV6846TX Battery
together with labour unions, challenged the 2004 draft constitution in the Swaziland's High Court. However, in March 2005 the court upheld a ban on opposition political parties, citing the 1973 State of Emergency decree of King Sobhuza II. "It remains the duty and function of the court to uphold and apply the laws of the land, HP Pavilion DV6847TX Battery
and especially so when constitutional issues are decided", the court ruled. The applicants indicated that they intended to pursue their case in the Court of Appeal.
Trade unions in the country have organized repeated strikes to protest against the lack of labour and political rights and the draft constitution. HP Pavilion DV6848TX Thrive Special Edition Battery
This included a general strike on 25 and 26 January 2005, although reportedly not widely heeded.
For local administration Swaziland is divided into four regions (Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni), each with an administrator appointed by the king. HP Pavilion DV6850EC Battery
Parallel to the government structure is the traditional system consisting of the king and his advisers, traditional courts, and 55 tinkhundla (subregional districts in which traditional chiefs are grouped).
Swaziland is a member of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) which the U.S. HP Pavilion DV6850EE Battery
began negotiating a Free Trade Agreement with in May 2003. The other members of SACU are Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho and South Africa. Swaziland is further member of ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), HP Pavilion DV6850EI Battery
ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
The military of Swaziland is used primarily during domestic protests, with some border and customs duties; the force has never been involved in a foreign conflict. HP Pavilion DV6850EK Battery
The army has struggled with high rates of HIV infection, however since measures were put in place the rate is dropping.
The King is the Commander-in-Chief of the Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (USDF) and the substantive Minister of the Ministry of Defence. HP Pavilion DV6850EL Battery
However, he delegates the responsibilities of the day-to-day activities of the executive arm of the government. There is a Defence Council, which is responsible for inter alia advising the King on all matters pertaining to the (USDF). The (USDF) is commanded by Major General Stanley Dlamini; HP Pavilion DV6850EP Battery
the deputy commander is Brigadier General Patrick Motsa, and the formation commander is Brigadier General Jeffry S. Tshabalala.
HIV/AIDS remains one of the major challenges to Swaziland’s socioeconomic development. HP Pavilion DV6850ER Battery
The epidemic has spread relentlessly in all the parts of the country since the first reported case in 1986.
Periodic surveillance of antenatal clinics in the country has shown a consistent rise in HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending the clinics. HP Pavilion DV6850ES Battery
The most recent surveillance in antenatal women reported an overall prevalence of 42.6% in 2004. Prevalence of 28% was found among young women aged 15–19. In women ages 25–29, prevalence was 56%.
The Human Development Index of the UN Development Programme reports that as a consequence of HIV/AIDS, HP Pavilion DV6850EW Battery
life expectancy in Swaziland has fallen from 61 years in 2000, to 32 years in 2009.
From another perspective, the last available World Health Organization data (2002) shows that 64% of all deaths in the country were caused by HIV/AIDS. In 2009, an estimated 7,000 people died from AIDS-related causes.[ HP Pavilion DV6853CA Battery
On a total population of approximately 1,185,000 this implies that HIV/AIDS kills an estimated 0.6% of the Swazi population every year. Chronic illnesses that are the most prolific causes of death in the developed world only account for a minute fraction of deaths in Swaziland; for example, heart disease, HP Pavilion DV6853CL Battery
strokes, and cancer cause a total of less than 5% of deaths in Swaziland, compared to 55% of all deaths yearly in the US.
The United Nations Development Program has written that if the spread of the epidemic in the country continues unabated, the "longer term existence of Swaziland as a country will be seriously threatened". HP Pavilion DV6853EA Battery
Traditional Swazi culture discourages safe sexual practices, like condom use and monogamous relationships. There is a cultural belief in procreation to increase the population size, and Swazis believe a woman should have a minimum of five children and that a man's role is to impregnate multiple partners. HP Pavilion DV6854CA Battery
Polygamy is common and men may never get married but still have many children from multiple partners. Sexual aggression is common, with 18% of sexually active high school students saying they were coerced into their first sexual encounter.
Many thousands of children have been orphaned by AIDS, and only 22% grow up in two-parent families. HP Pavilion DV6838CA Battery
In 2003, the National Emergency Response Committee on HIV/AIDS (NERCHA) was established to coordinate and facilitate the national multisectoral response to HIV/AIDS, while the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) was to implement activities. HP Pavilion DV6838EZ Battery
The previous national HIV/AIDS strategic plan covered the period 2000–2005; a new national HIV/AIDS strategic plan and a national HIV/AIDS action plan for the 2006–2008 period are currently being developed by a broad group of national stakeholders. HP Pavilion DV6838NR Battery
To date, the six key areas of the plan are prevention, care and support, impact mitigation, communications, monitoring and evaluation, and management/coordination.
Despite the widespread nature of the epidemic in Swaziland, HIV/AIDS is still heavily stigmatized. HP Pavilion DV6838TX Battery
Few people living with HIV/AIDS, particularly prominent people such as religious and traditional leaders and media/sports personalities, have come out publicly and revealed their status. Stigma hinders the flow of information to communities, hampers prevention efforts, and reduces utilization of services. HP Pavilion DV6839CL Battery
On June 4, 2009, the USA and Swaziland signed the Swaziland Partnership Framework on HIV and AIDS for 2009-2013. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Reliefwill contribute to the implementation of Swaziland's multi-sectoral National Strategic Framework on HIV/AIDS. HP Pavilion DV6839TX Influx Special Edition Battery
Tuberculosis is also a significant problem, with an 18 percent mortality rate. Many patients have a multi-drug resistant strain, and 83 percent are co-infected with HIV. There are roughly 14,000 new TB cases diagnosed each year. HP Pavilion DV6840EB Battery
The population of Swaziland is approximately 35 percent Protestant, 30 percent African Zionist, 25 percent Catholic, 1 percent Muslim and Hinduism (0.15%).. Those statistics, however do not match CIA's data in Nationmaster, which specifies 66% protestants and 5.33% catholics[HP Pavilion DV6840EC Battery
The remaining 9 percent of the population is divided among the Baha'i Faith, Seventh-day Adventism, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), Branhamism, and other religious groups. The Zionist Churches, which blend Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship, predominate in rural areas. HP Pavilion DV6840EJ Battery
A large Roman Catholic presence, including churches, schools, and other infrastructure, continues to flourish. The country forms a single diocese - the Diocese of Manzini.Followers ofJudaism, Islam, and the Baha'i Faith are generally located in urban areas. HP Pavilion DV6840EL Battery
Islam in Swaziland probably dates to the colonial period, when many Muslims settled in the country from other countries under the dominion of the British Empire. Most immigrants from South Asia practice Islam. There are fewatheists. Missionaries continue to play a role in rural development. HP Pavilion DV6840EO Battery
The new Constitution, which went into effect on February 8, 2006, provides for freedom of religion. The Government generally respects freedom of religion in practice. The US government received no reports of societal abuse or discrimination based on religious belief or practice during 2008.[ HP Pavilion DV6840EP Battery,HP Pavilion DV6840ER Battery,HP Pavilion DV6840ES Battery