As of the 2010 census, the population of Malaysia
Posted May 24th, 2012 at 01:52am
As of the 2010 census, the population of Malaysia was 28,334,135, making it the 43rd most populated country. The population of Malaysia consists of many ethnic groups. Malays make up 50.4 per cent of the population, while other bumiputra make up another 11 per cent. HP G42-372TX Battery
According to constitutional definition, Malays are Muslims who practice Malay customs and culture. They play a dominant role politically. Bumiputra status is also accorded to certain non-Malayindigenous peoples, including ethnic Thais, Khmers, Chams and the natives of Sabah and Sarawak. HP G42-375TX Battery
Non-Malay bumiputra make up more than half of Sarawak's population and over two thirds of Sabah's population. There also exist aboriginal groups in much smaller numbers on the peninsula, where they are collectively known as the Orang Asli. Laws over who gets bumiputra status vary between states. HP G42-378TX Battery
Other minorities who lack bumiputra status make up a large amount of the population. 23.7 per cent of the population are of Chinese descent, while those of Indian descent comprise 7.1 per cent of the population. The Chinese have historically been dominant in the business and commerce community, and form a plurality of the population of Penang. HP G42-380TX Battery
Indians began migrating to Malaysia in the early 19th century. The majority of the Indian community are Tamils.
Malaysian citizenship is not automatically granted to those born in Malaysia, but is granted to a child born of two Malaysian parents outside Malaysia. HP G42-381TX Battery
Dual citizenship is not permitted. Citizenship in the states of Sabah and Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo are distinct from citizenship in Peninsular Malaysia for immigration purposes. Every citizen is issued a biometric smart chip identity card known as MyKad at the age of 12, and must carry the card at all times. HP G42-382TX Battery
The education system features a non-compulsory kindergarten education followed by six years of compulsory primary education, and five years of optional secondary education. Schools in the primary education system are divided into two categories: HP G42-383TX Battery
national primary schools, which teach in Malay, and vernacular schools, which teach in Chinese or Tamil. Secondary education is conducted for five years. In the final year of secondary education, students sit for theMalaysian Certificate of Education examination. HP G42-384TX Battery
Since the introduction of the matriculation programme in 1999, students who completed the 12-month programme in matriculation colleges can enroll in local universities. However, in the matriculation system, only 10 per cent of places are open to non-bumiputra students. HP G42-385TX Battery
The infant mortality rate in 2009 was 6 deaths per 1000 births, and life expectancy at birth in 2009 was 75 years. With the aim of developing Malaysia into a medical tourism destination, 5 per cent of the government social sector development budget is spent on health care. HP G42-386TX Battery
The population in concentrated on Peninsular Malaysia where 20 million of approximately 28 million Malaysians live. 70 per cent of the population is urban. Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the largest city in Malaysia, as well as its main commercial and financial centre. HP G42-387TX Battery
Putrajaya, a purpose-built city constructed from 1999, is the seat of government, as many executive and judicial branches of the federal government were moved there to ease growing congestion within Kuala Lumpur.
Due to the rise in labour intensive industries, the country is estimated to have over 3 million migrant workers; HP G42-388TX Battery
about 10 per cent of the population.Sabah-based NGOs estimate that out of the 3 million that make up the population of Sabah, 2 million are illegal immigrants. Malaysia hosts a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 171,500. Of this population, approximately 79,000 are from Burma, HP G42-394TX Battery
72,400 from the Philippines, and 17,700 from Indonesia. Malaysian officials are reported to have turned deportees directly over to human smugglers in 2007, and Malaysia employs RELA, a volunteer militia with a history of controversies, to enforce its immigration law. HP G42-397TX Battery
The Malaysian constitution guarantees freedom of religion while making Islam the state religion. According to the Population and Housing Census 2010 figures, ethnicity and religious beliefs correlate highly. HP G42-398TX Battery
Approximately 61.3% of the population are practicing Islam. 19.8% practice Buddhism; 9.2% Christianity; 6.3% Hinduism; and 1.3% practice Confucianism,Taoism and other traditional Chinese religions. 0.7% declared no religion and the remaining 1.4% practised other religions or did not provide any information. HP G42t Battery
All ethnic Malays are considered Muslim by law of the Constitution. Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 83.6% of the Chinese population identify as Buddhist, with significant numbers of adherents following Taoism (3.4%) and Christianity (11.1%), along with small Hui-Muslim populations in areas like Penang. HP G42T-200 CTO Battery
The majority of the Indian population follow Hinduism (86.2%), with a significant minority identifying as Christians (6.0%) or Muslims (4.1%). Christianity is the predominant religion of the non-Malay bumiputra community (46.5%) with an additional 40.4% identifying as Muslims. HP G42t-300 CTO Battery
Muslims are obliged to follow the decisions of Syariah courts in matters concerning their religion. The Islamic judges are expected to follow the Shafi`i legal school of Islam, which is the main madh'hab of Malaysia. The jurisdiction of Shariahcourts is limited to Muslims in matters such as marriage, HP G42t Notebook PC Series Battery
inheritance, divorce, apostasy, religious conversion, and custody among others. No other criminal or civil offences are under the jurisdiction of the Shariah courts, which have a similar hierarchy to the Civil Courts. Despite being the supreme courts of the land, the Civil Courts do not hear matters related to Islamic practices. HP G56 Battery
The official language of Malaysia is Bahasa Malaysia, a standardised form of the Malay language. Historically English was the de facto administrative language, with Malay becoming predominant after the 1969 race riots. HP G56-100SA Battery
English remains an active second language, and serves as the medium of instruction for maths and sciences in all public schools. Malaysian English, also known as Malaysian Standard English, is a form of English derived from British English. Malaysian English is widely used in business, HP G56-105SA Battery
along with Manglish, which is a colloquial form of English with heavy Malay, Chinese, and Tamilinfluences. The government discourages the misuse of Malay and has instituted fines for public signs that mix Malay and English.
Many other languages are used in Malaysia, which contains speakers of 137 living languages.[
Peninsular Malaysia contains speakers of 41 of these languages. The native tribes of East Malaysia have their own languages which are related to, but easily distinguishable from, Malay. Iban is the main tribal language in Sarawak while Dusunic languages are spoken by the natives in Sabah. HP G56-106SA Battery
Chinese Malaysians predominately speak Chinese dialects from the southern provinces of China. The more common dialects in the country are Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainanese, and Fuzhou. Tamil is used predominantly by Tamils, who form a majority of Malaysian Indians. HP G56-107SA Battery
Other south Asian languages are also widely spoken in Malaysia, as well as Thai A small number of Malaysians have Caucasian ancestry and speak creole languages, such as the Portuguese based Malaccan Creoles, and the Spanish based Chavacano language. HP G56-108SA Battery
Malaysia has a multi-ethnic, multicultural, and multilingual society. The original culture of the area stemmed from indigenous tribes that inhabited it, along with the Malays who later moved there. HP G56-109SA Battery
Substantial influence exists from Chinese and Indianculture, dating back to when foreign trade began. Other cultural influences include the Persian, Arabic, and British cultures. Due to the structure of the government, coupled with the social contract theory, there has been minimal cultural assimilation of ethnic minorities. HP G56-112SA Battery
In 1971, the government created a "National Cultural Policy", defining Malaysian culture. It stated that Malaysian culture must be based on the culture of the indigenous peoples of Malaysia, that it may incorporate suitable elements from other cultures, and that Islam must play a part in it. HP G56-130SA Battery
It also promoted the Malay language above others. This government intervention into culture has caused resentment among non-Malays who feel their cultural freedom was lessened. Both Chinese and Indian associations have submitted memorandums to the government, accusing it of formulating an undemocratic culture policy. HP G62 Battery
Some cultural disputes exist between Malaysia and neighbouring countries, notably Indonesia. The two countries have a similar cultural heritage, sharing many traditions and items. However, disputes have arisen over things ranging from culinary dishes to Malaysia's national anthem. HP G62-100 Battery
Strong feelings exist in Indonesia about protecting their national heritage. The Malaysian government and the Indonesian government have met to defuse some of the tensions resulting from the overlaps in culture.Feelings are not as strong in Malaysia, where most recognise that many cultural values are shared. HP G62-100EB Battery
Traditional Malaysian art was mainly centred around the areas of carving, weaving, and silversmithing. Traditional art ranges from handwoven baskets from rural areas to the silverwork of the Malay courts. HP G62-100EE Battery
Common artworks included ornamental kris,beetle nut sets, and woven batik and songket fabrics. Indigenous East Malaysians are known for their wooden masks. Each ethnic group have distinct performing arts, with little overlap between them. However, Malay art does show some North Indian influence due to the historical influence of India. HP G62-100EJ Battery
Traditional Malay music and performing arts appear to have originated in theKelantan-Pattani region with influences from India, China, Thailand and Indonesia. The music is based around percussion instruments, the most important of which is thegendang (drum). HP G62-100SL Battery
There are at least 14 types of traditional drums. Drums and other traditional percussion instruments and are often made from natural materials. Music is traditionally used for storytelling, celebrating life-cycle events, and occasions such as a harvest. It was once used as a form of long-distance communication. HP G62-101TU Battery
In East Malaysia, gong-based musical ensembles such as agung and kulintang are commonly used in ceremonies such as funerals and weddings. These ensembles are also common in neighbouring regions such as in the southern Philippines, Kalimantan in Indonesia, and Brunei. HP G62-101XX Battery
Malaysia has a strong oral tradition that has existed since before the arrival of writing, and continues today. Each of the Malay Sultanates created their own literary tradition, influenced by pre-existing oral stories and by the stories that came with Islam. The first Malay literature was in the Arabic script. HP G62-103XX Battery
The earliest known Malay writing is on the Terengganu stone, made in 1303. Chinese and Indian literature became common as the numbers of speakers increased in Malaysia, and locally produced works based in languages from those areas began to be produced in the 19th century. HP G62-104SA Battery
English has also become a common literary language. In 1971, the government took the step of defining the literature of different languages. Literature written in Malay was called "the national literature of Malaysia", literature in otherbumiputra languages was called "regional literature",HP G62-105SA Battery
while literature in other languages was called "sectional literature". Malay poetry is highly developed, and uses many forms. The Hikayat form is popular, and the pantun has spread from Malay to other languages.
Malaysia's cuisine reflects the multi-ethnic makeup of its population. HP G62-106SA Battery
Many cultures from within the country and from surrounding regions have greatly influenced the cuisine. Much of the influence comes from the Malay, Chinese, Indian, Thai, Javanese, and Sumatran cultures, largely due to the country being part of the ancient spice route.[ HP G62-107SA Battery
The cuisine is very similar to that of Singapore and Brunei, and also bears resemblance to Filipino cuisine. The different states have varied dishes, and often the food in Malaysia is different from the original dishes.
Sometimes food not found in its original culture is assimilated into another; HP G62-110ED Battery
for example, Chinese restaurants in Malaysia often serve Malay dishes. Food from one culture is sometimes also cooked using styles taken from another culture, This means that although much of Malaysian food can be traced back to a certain culture, they have their own identity. Rice is popular in many dishes. HP G62-110EE Battery
Chili is commonly found in local cuisine, although this does not necessarily make them spicy.
Holidays and festivals
Malaysians observe a number of holidays and festivities throughout the year. Some are federally gazetted public holidays and some are observed by individual states. HP G62-110EO Battery
Other festivals are observed by particular ethnic or religion groups, and the main holiday of each major group has been declared a public holiday. The most observed national holiday is Hari Merdeka(Independence Day) on 31 August, commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya in 1957. HP G62-110EY Battery
Malaysia Day on 16 September commemorates federation in 1963. Other notable national holidays are Labour Day (1 May) and the King's birthday (first week of June).
Muslim holidays are prominent as Islam is the state religion; Hari Raya Puasa (also called Hari Raya Aidilfitri, Malay forEid al-Fitr), HP G62-110SA Battery
Hari Raya Haji (also called Hari Raya Aidiladha, the translation of Eid ul-Adha), Maulidur Rasul (birthday of the Prophet), and others being observed. Malaysian Chinese celebrate festivals such as Chinese New Year and others relating to traditional Chinese beliefs. Hindus in Malaysia celebrate Deepavali, the festival of lights, HP G62-110SO Battery
while Thaipusamis a religious rite which sees pilgrims from all over the country converge at the Batu Caves. Malaysia's Christian community celebrates most of the holidays observed by Christians elsewhere, most notably Christmas and Easter. East Malaysians also celebrate a harvest festival known as Gawai. HP G62-110SS Battery
Despite most festivals being identified with a particular ethnic or religious group, celebrations are universal. In a custom known as "open house" Malaysians participate in the celebrations of others, often visiting the houses of those who identify with the festival.
Popular sports in Malaysia include soccer, HP G62-110SW Battery
badminton, field hockey, bowls, tennis, squash, martial arts, horse riding,sailing, and skate boarding. Badminton matches attract thousands of spectators, and since 1948 Malaysia has been one of three countries to hold the Thomas Cup. The Malaysian Lawn Bowls Federation was registered in 1997. HP G62-111EE Battery
Squash was brought to the country by members of the British army, with the first competition being held in 1939. The Squash Racquets Association of Malaysia was created on 25 June 1972. Malaysia has proposed a Southeast Asian football league. The men's national field hockey team ranked 15th in the world as of August 2010. HP G62-112EE Battery
The 3rd Hockey World Cup was hosted atMerdeka Stadium in Kuala Lumpur, as well as the 10th cup. The country also has its own Formula One track–the Sepang International Circuit. It runs for 310.408 kilometres (192.88 mi), and held its first Grand Prix in 1999. HP G62-112SO Battery
The Federation of Malaya Olympic Council was formed in 1953, and received recognition by the IOC in 1954. It first participated in the 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games. The council was renamed the Olympic Council of Malaysia in 1964, and has participated in all but one Olympic games since its inception. HP G62-113SO Battery
The largest number of athletes ever sent to the Olympics was 57 to the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. Malaysian athletes have won a total of four Olympic medals, all of which are in badminton. The country has competed at the Commonwealth Games since 1950 as Malaya, and 1966 as Malaysia, and the games were hosted in Kuala Lumpur in 1998. HP G62-115SE Battery
For the martial arts, there's two types of styles are being practiced in Malaysia; the Silat and the Malaysian kickboxing called Tomoi.
Malaysia's main newspapers are owned by the government and political parties in the ruling coalition, although some major opposition parties also have their own. HP G62-115SO Battery
A divide exists between the media in the two halves of the country. Peninsular-based media gives low priority to news from the East, and often treats the eastern states as colonies of the Peninsula. HP G62-117SO Battery
The media has been blamed for increasing tension between Indonesia and Malaysia, and giving Malaysians a bad image of Indonesians. The country has Malay, English, Chinese, and Tamil dailies.
There is very little freedom of the press, leading to very little government accountability. HP G62-118EO Battery
The government has previously tried to crack down on opposition papers before elections. In 2007, a government agency issued a directive to all private television and radio stations to refrain from broadcasting speeches made by opposition leaders, a move condemned by politicians from the opposition Democratic Action Party. HP G62-120EC Battery
Sabah, where all tabloids but one are independent of government control, has the freest press in Malaysia. Laws such as the Printing Presses and Publications Act have also been cited as curtailing freedom of expression.
The infrastructure of Malaysia is one of the most developed in Asia. HP G62-120EE Battery
Its telecommunications network is second only to Singapore's in Southeast Asia, with 4.7 million fixed-line subscribers and more than 30 million cellular subscribers. The country has seven international ports, the major one being the Port Klang. There are 200 industrial parks along with specialised parks such asTechnology Park Malaysia and Kulim Hi-Tech Park.[ HP G62-120EG Battery
Fresh water is available to over 95 per cent of the population. During the colonial period, development was mainly concentrated in economically powerful cities and in areas forming security concerns. Although rural areas have been the focus of great development, they still lag behind areas such as the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.[ HP G62-120EH Battery
The telecommunication network, although strong in urban areas, is less available to the rural population.
Malaysia's road network covers 98,721 kilometres (61,342 mi) and includes 1,821 kilometres (1,132 mi) of expressways. HP G62-120EK Battery
The longest highway of the country, the North-South Expressway, extends over 800 kilometres (497 mi) between the Thai border and Singapore. The road systems in East Malaysia are less developed and of lower quality in comparison to that of Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysia has 118 airports, of which 38 are paved. HP G62-120EL Battery
The country's official airline is Malaysia Airlines, providing international and domestic air service alongside two other carriers. The railway system is state-run, and covers a total of 1,849 kilometres (1,149 mi). Relatively inexpensive elevated Light Rail Transit systems are used in some cities, such as Kuala Lumpur. HP G62-120EP Battery
The Asean Rail Express is a railway service that connects Kuala Lumpur to Bangkok, and is intended to eventually stretch from Singapore to China.
Traditionally, energy production in Malaysia has been based on oil and natural gas. The country has 13 GW of electrical generation capacity. HP G62-120EQ Battery
However, the country only has 33 years of natural gas reserves, and 19 years of oil reserves, while the demand for energy is increasing. In response, the government is expanding into renewable energy sources. Sixteen per cent of electricity generation is hydroelectric, the remaining 84 per cent being thermal. HP G62-120ER Battery
The oil and gas industry is dominated by state owned Petronas, and the energy sector as a whole is regulated by the Energy Commission of Malaysia, a statutory commission that governs the energy in the peninsula and Sabah, under the terms of the Electricity Commission Act of 2001. HP G62-120ES Battery
The environment of Malaysia refers to the biotas and geologies that constitute the natural environment of this Southeast Asian nation. Ecologically, Malaysia is a megadiverse nation with a biodiverse range of flora and fauna found in variousecoregions throughout the country. HP G62-120ET Battery
Tropical rainforests encompass between 59% to 70% of Malaysia's total land area, of which 11.6% is pristine. Malaysia has the world's fifth largest mangrove area, which totals over a half a million hectares (over 1.2 million acres).
Human intervention poses a significant threat to the natural environment of this country. HP G62-120EY Battery
Agriculture, forestry and urbanisation contribute to the destruction of forests, mangroves and other thriving ecosystems in the country.Ecosystems and landscapes are dramatically altered by human development, including but not limited to the construction of roads and damming of rivers. HP G62-120SE Battery
Geographical phenomena, such as landslides and flooding in the Klang Valley, along with haze, stem from widespread deforestation. Subtle climate change occurs as a direct result of air pollution and the greenhouse effect, which in turn is caused by the emission of greenhouse gases. HP G62-120SL Battery
Low-lying areas near the coastline of Sabah and Sarawak are under threat from current sea level rise.
The environment is the subject of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment at the federal level.
The Department of Wildlife and National Parks is responsible for the preservation of flora and fauna in Malaysia. Several environmental organisations have been established to raise awareness regarding the environmental issues in Malaysia.
Malaysia is home to 15500 species of higher plants, 746 birds, 379 reptiles, 198 amphibians, HP G62-120SW Battery
and 368 species of fish.There are also 286 species of mammals in Malaysia, of which 27 are endemic and 51 are threatened. Some of these mammals are found in both Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. The former has 193 species of mammals, while the latter has 215. HP G62-121EE Battery
Among the mammals that are native to Malaysia include the Asian elephant, the Indochinese tiger, the Leopard Cat and the Pot-bellied pig. Endangered species include the orangutan, the tiger, the Asian elephant, the Malayan tapir, the Sumatran rhinoceros and the Singapore roundleaf horseshoe bat. HP G62-125EK Battery
The tropical moist broadleaf forests of Peninsular Malaysia consist of 450 species of birds and over 6000 different species of trees, of which 1000 are vascular plants that occur naturally inkarsts. The rainforests of East Malaysia are denser, with over 400 species of tall dipterocarps and semihardwoods. HP G62-125EL Battery
The national flower of Malaysia is the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, an evergreen that was introduced into the Malay peninsula in the 12th century. The rafflesia is also widely found in the country.
Ecoregions and land use
There are various ecoregions in Malaysia with varying degrees of prevalence. HP G62-125EV Battery
Major forests account for 45% of all ecoregions in the country, interrupted woods represent 33%, major wetlands constitute 3%, grass and shrubs make up 2% while other coastal aquatic regions form 8% of the country's land area, with crops and settlements taking up the remaining space. HP G62-125SL Battery
Malaysia has many national parks, although most of them are de facto state parks. The Taman Negara National Park in central Peninsular Malaysia is 130 million years old, making it one of the oldest rainforests in the world.
About 41% of the land area is classified as "low human disturbance", HP G62-130 Battery
19% is categorised as "medium human disturbance" and 40% falls under the "high human disturbance" category. 2.7% of the land is totally protected, 1.77% is partially protected and 4.47% is totally or partially protected.
Malaysia lies along the 1st parallel north to the 7th parallel north circles of latitude, HP G62-130EG Battery
roughly equal to Roraima(Brazil), the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Kenya. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Malaysia has a tropical rainforest climate due to its proximity to the equator. The country is hot and humid all year round, with an average temperature of 27 °C (80.6 °F) and almost no variability in the yearly temperature. HP G62-130EK Battery
The country experiences two monsoon seasons, the Northeast Monsoon and the Southwest Monsoon. The Northeast Monsoon brings heavy rainfall to the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia and western Sarawak, while the Southwest Monsoon signifies dryer conditions throughout the country except Sabah. HP G62-130ET Battery
During the Southwest Monsoon, most states experience minimal rainfall due to the stable atmospheric conditions in the region and the Sumatran mountain range, which brings about therain shadow effect. Sabah experiences more rainfall because of the tail effect of typhoons in the Philippines. HP G62-130EV Battery
The urban heat island effect is caused by overdevelopment and general human activities in the cities of Malaysia.
Air Pollution Index
The Air Pollution Index (API) is used by the government to describe the air quality in Malaysia. HP G62-130SD Battery
The API value is calculated based on average concentrations of air pollutants, namely sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone and fine dust (PM10). The air pollutant with the highest concentration is the pollutant that will determine the value of the API. Fine dust is typically the dominant pollutant. HP G62-130SL Battery
The API is reported on a scale starting from 0. A score of 0 to 50 is considered good, 51 to 100 is moderate, 101 to 200 is unhealthy, 201 to 300 is very unhealthy and anything higher than 300 is hazardous. A state of emergency is declared in the reporting area if the API exceeds 500, which occurred in Port Klangin 2005. HP G62-134CA Battery
Non-essential government services are suspended, and all ports and schools in the affected area are closed. Private sector commercial and industrial activities in the reporting area might be prohibited.
Environmental law and conservation
The Environmental Quality Act of 1974 and other environmental laws are administered by the Division of Environment. HP G62-135EV Battery
Clean-air legislation was adopted in 1978, limiting industrial and automobile emissions. However, air pollution remains a problem in Malaysian cities.
The National Forestry Act of 1984 was enacted for sustainable forest management, but the act has not been enforced. HP G62-140EL Battery
There are a number of environmental issues faced by Malaysia, such as deforestation and pollution. According to a study by Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies in 2008, about 30% of Malaysian coastline is subject to varying degrees of erosion. HP G62-140EQ Battery
According to the United Nations, Malaysia's deforestation rate is the highest among tropical nations. The country's annual deforestation rate increased 86% between 1999–2000 and 2000-2005. Malaysia lost an average of 140,200 hectares of its forests or 0.65% of its total forest area every year since 2000, HP G62-140ES Battery
whereas in the 1990s, the country lost an average of 78,500 hectares, or 0.35 percent of its forests annually.
Widespread urbanisation, agricultural fires and forest conversion for oil palm plantations and other forms of agriculture are the main causes of Malaysia's high deforestation rate. HP G62-140ET Battery
Logging is responsible for forest degradation in the country, and local timber companies have been accused by environmental organisations of failing to practice sustainable forest management.
Mining in peninsular Malaysia has left a mark on the environment. HP G62-140SF Battery
Deforestation, pollution of rivers, and siltation have resulted in losses of agriculture, and road projects have opened new areas to colonisation.
Air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions is a major issue in the urban areas of Malaysia. HP G62-140SS Battery
Malaysia is ranked 42nd in the world in terms of vehicle ownership per capita, with 273 Malaysians having vehicles out of every 1000. Public transportation has been introduced in the form of bus networks and railway systems as mitigation, but utilisation rates are low. HP G62-140US Battery
Water pollution occurs due to the discharge of untreated sewage; the west coast of the Peninsular Malaysia is the most heavily populated area. 40% of the rivers in Malaysia are heavily polluted. The country has 580 cubic km of water, of which 76% is used for farming and 13% is used for industrial activity. HP G62-143CL Battery
Cities in Malaysia produce an average of 1.5 million tons of solid waste per year.
In 2000, Malaysia was ranked fourth in the world in terms of per capita greenhouse gas emissions after taking into account land use change with 37.2 tonnes ofcarbon dioxide equivalent per capita. HP G62-144DX Battery
Periodic fires, which usually coincide with the events of el Niño, burn thousands of hectares of forests across Malaysia, especially in Malaysian Borneo. The haze originating from these fires and the fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia typically have adverse health effects on the populace, besides causing air pollution. HP G62-145NR Battery
In particular, the 1997 Southeast Asian haze, the 2005 Malaysian haze and the 2006 Southeast Asian haze were caused by slash and burn activities in neighbouring Indonesia.
The geography of Malaysia deals with the physical and human geography of Malaysia, a country located in Southeast Asia. HP G62-147NR Battery
There are two distinct parts to this country being Peninsular Malaysia to the west and East Malaysia to the east. Peninsular Malaysia is located south of Thailand, north of Singapore and east of the Indonesian island ofSumatra. East Malaysia is located on the island of Borneo and shares borders with Brunei and Indonesia. HP G62-149WM Battery
Located near the equator, Malaysia's climate is categorised as equatorial, being hot and humid throughout the year. The average rainfall is 250 centimetres (98 in) a year and the average temperature is 27 °C (80.6 °F). HP G62-150EE Battery
The climates of the Peninsula and the East differ, as the climate on the peninsula is directly affected by wind from the mainland, as opposed to the more maritime weather of the East. Malaysia is exposed to the El Niño effect, which reduces rainfall in the dry season. HP G62-150EF Battery
Climate change is likely to have a significant effect on Malaysia, increasing sea levels and rainfall, increasing flooding risks and leading to large droughts.
Malaysia faces two monsoon winds seasons, the Southwest Monsoon from late May to September, and the Northeast Monsoon from November to March. HP G62-150EQ Battery
The Northeast Monsoon brings in more rainfall compared to the Southwest Monsoon, originating in China and the north Pacific. The southwest monsoon originates from the deserts of Australia. March and October form transitions between the two monsoons. HP G62-150ET Battery
Local climates are affected by the presence of mountain ranges throughout Malaysia, and climate can be divided into that of the highlands, the lowlands, and coastal regions. The coasts have a sunny climate, with temperatures ranging between 23 °C (73.4 °F) and 32 °C (89.6 °F), and rainfall ranging from 10 centimetres (4 in) to 30 centimetres (12 in) a month. HP G62-150EV Battery
The lowlands have a similar temperature, but follow a more distinctive rainfall pattern and show very high humidity levels. The highlands are cooler and wetter, and display a greater temperature variation. A large amount of cloud cover is present over the highlands, which have humidity levels that do not fall below 75%. HP G62-150SE Battery
The highest temperature was recorded at Chuping, Perlis on 9 April 1998 at 40.1 °C (104.2 °F). The lowest temperature was recorded at Cameron Highlands on 1 February 1978 at 7.8 °C (46.0 °F). The highest rainfall recorded in a day was 608 mm (23.9 in) in Kota Bharu, Kelantan on 6 January 1967. HP G62-150SF Battery
The highest rainfall recorded in a year was 5,687 mm (223.9 in) at Sandakan, Sabah in 2006. Meanwhile, the lowest rainfall recorded in a year was 1,151 mm (45.3 in) at Tawau, Sabahin 1997. The wettest place in Malaysia is Kuching, Sarawak with an average rainfall of 4,128 mm (162.5 in) with 247 days of rain a year. HP G62-150SL Battery
The driest place in Malaysia is in Chuping, Perlis with average rainfall of only 1,746 mm (68.7 in) a year.
Malaysia is located on the Sunda shelf, and is tectonically inactive. The oldest rocks in the country date from 540million years ago, and are mostlysedimentary. HP G62-153CA Battery
The most common form of rock is limestone, formed during the Paleozoic era. Limestone laid down in East Malaysia during the Tertiary period has since eroded, and such erosion forms basins of sedimentary rocks rich in oil and natural gas. The mountain ranges in Malaysia were formed through orogenesisbeginning in the Mesozoic era. HP G62-154CA Battery
The total land area of Malaysia is 329,847 square kilometres (127,350 sq mi), the 67th largest country in the world in terms of area. It is the only country to contain land on both mainland Asia and the Malay archipelago. HP G62-165SL Battery
Peninsular Malaysia makes up 132,090 square kilometres (51,000 sq mi), or 39.7%, while East Malaysia covers 198,847 square kilometres (76,780 sq mi), or 60.3% of the total land of the country. From the total land area, 1,200 square kilometres (460 sq mi) or 0.37% is made up of water such as lakes, rivers, or other internal waters. HP G62-166SB Battery
Malaysia has a total coastline of 4,675 kilometres (2,905 mi), whereby Peninsular Malaysia has 2,068 kilometres (1,285 mi), while East Malaysia has 2,607 kilometres (1,620 mi) of coastline. Malaysia has the 29th longest coastline in the world. The two distinct parts of Malaysia, HP G62-200XX Battery
separated from each other by the South China Sea, share a largely similar landscape in that both West (Peninsula) and East Malaysia feature coastal plains rising to hills and mountains.
Peninsula Malaysia covers the southern half of the Malay Peninsula, and extends 740 kilometres (460 mi) from north to south,HP G62-201XX Battery
and its maximum width is 322 kilometres (200 mi). It is very mountainous, with more than half of it over 150 metres (492 ft) above sea level. About half of Peninsular Malaysia is covered by granite and other igneous rocks, a third more is covered by stratified rocks older than the granite, and the remainder is covered by alluvium. HP G62-219WM Battery
Harbours are only available on the peninsula's western side, and the most fertile land occurs when river valleys flow out to the sea. The coastal plains bordering the straits of Malacca are the most densely populated areas of Malaysia, and contains Malaysia's capital,Kuala Lumpur. HP G62-251XX Battery
East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo, has a coastline of 2,607 kilometres (1,620 mi). It is divided between coastal regions, hills and valleys, and a mountainous interior. There are only two major cities, Kuching and Kota Kinabalu. Much of southern Sarawak is coastal lowlands, which shifts to a series of plateaus going north, ending in the mountainous regions of Sabah. HP G62-400 Battery
The highest mountain range in Malaysia is the Crocker Range in Sabah, which divides the state in half. This range housesMount Kinabalu, the highest mountain in the country, as well as Mount Tambuyukon, the third highest in the country. HP G62-450SA Battery
Mount Kinabalu, at 4,095.2 metres (13,436 ft), is the tallest mountain in Malaysia and is protected as Kinabalu National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Mountain ranges in the East tend to follow north-south or northeast-southwest paths, and the highest ranges form the border between Malaysia and Indonesia. HP G62-451SA Battery
The mountains contain many jagged limestone peaks. The Trus Madi Range, also in Sabah, houses Mount Trus Madi, the second highest peak in Malaysia. Bombalai Hill in Sabah is the only active volcano in Malaysia.
Peninsula Malaysia contains numerous mountain ranges running parallel from north to south along the peninsula. HP G62-452SA Battery
The main mountain range is the Titiwangsa Mountains, which divides the peninsula between its east and west coasts. It houses Mount Korbu, the second highest peak in the Peninsular. These mountains are heavily forested, and mainly composed of granite. The range is the origin of some of Peninsula Malaysia's river systems. HP G62-454TU Battery